Ronald Stone Anderson Papers

Biographical Sketch

Ronald Stone Anderson was born 1908 in Seattle, Washington. Most of his primary and secondary education, however, took place in Southern California. He attended Stanford University, graduating with a bachelor’s degree in 1929. During a tour of Asia following his graduation, he applied for various teaching positions. He taught at Ayama-gakuin, a Methodist school in Tokyo for one year. He then taught two years at the Fourth Higher School in Kanazawa, Hokuriku district, Ishikawa Prefecture. The severe climate lead him to move to Fukuoka where he taught three years.

After six years in Japan, Anderson returned to Stanford University to pursue a master’s degree. During this time at Stanford, he was able to teach at the Munroe School, a feeder preparatory school associated with Stanford. The focus of his graduate studies was on the history of the Japanese occupation of Formosa or Taiwan. The actual date he received his master’s is open to question.1

Following his degree, he obtained a position at the high school in Redwood City, California. In 1943, Anderson returned once more to Stanford, this time in the capacity of an instructor in the Civil Affairs Training School (CATS) which trained American civilians in Japanese culture, history and language.2 Anderson did not know Japanese language;3 his instructor activities were in education and the family.

In 1946 with the end of the program at Stanford, Anderson desired to go to Japan. He took the long way around, but probably the only way at that time, by going to Washington, D.C. His application at the Pentagon seemed unsuccessful to him, so he began teaching on a temporary basis in a high school in the District. About one month later, he was offered a permanent position which he accepted. That night upon returning to his apartment, he had a telegram from the Pentagon instructing him that his departure ship would leave Seattle for Japan in three or four days.4

He landed in Japan in January 1946, with an assignment to a military office in Tokyo with the Office of the Coordinator of Counter Intelligence. After one month work at what he considered a waste of time and effort, Anderson went to Kyoto and was able to finesse a new assignment, to the I Corps as Chief of CEI, the Civil Education and Information Officer.5 In this capacity, he supervised the schools, their principals and teaching staffs, in an area stretching from Shizuoka to Kagoshima. Under this arrangement, the American Military Occupation instituted the reform movement in Japanese education.

Anderson returned to the United States in 1949 and began his doctoral studies at the University of California, Berkeley. In 1952 he obtained a position at the University of Michigan. While at the University of Michigan, he obtained his doctorate from University of California in 1956. He served as the secretary to the Association of Asian Studies for eight years from its initial founding in 1952 until he left Michigan in 1960.6

In 1960, Ronald Stone Anderson came to the University of Hawaiʻi, first as Carnegie Visiting Professor of Education. He remained after the initial appointment as Visiting Professor. In the fall of 1960, he was appointed by the Board of Regents as Acting Director of the Asian Studies Program. He continued with the Asian Studies Program through 1967/68 academic year. Anderson then returned full time to the Educational Foundations department in the College of Education.7 Anderson also started the Teacher Exchange Program of the East West Center. During the seven years it existed, secondary teachers from Asia and the United States Mainland met at the East West Center with the goal of exchanging cultural ideals, values and information. Over 200 teachers participated in this program.8

Ronald Stone Anderson died in Honolulu on 15 February 1985.


1 Two dates for Anderson’s MA occur. One date, 1946, occurs in an obituary of him, John Whitney Hall, “Obituary: Ronald Stone Anderson (1908-1985),” Journal of Asian Studies 45, no. 1 (November 1985), p. 209, and in the faculty listings in the official catalogs of the University of Hawaiʻi during the years Anderson was on the faculty. The second date, 1936, comes from Typescript, Ronald S. Anderson, oral interview, 8 February 1980, by Harry Wray; transcript, part I, p. 6.

2 Anderson, oral interview, part I, p. 12.

3 Anderson, oral interview, part I, p. 4.

4 Anderson, oral interview, part I, pp. 18-19.

5 Anderson, oral interview, part I, pp. 19-21.

6Hall, “Obituary,” Journal of Asian Studies.

7 University of Hawaiʻi Catalog, 1959/60, 1962/63, 1967/68, 1968/69, University Archives, Manuscript A____:___.

8 “Obituaries: Ronald Anderson,” Honolulu Advertiser, 21 Feb. 1985, p. A-10.


Box 1

  • Legislation, Statistics and other Informational Matters Pertaining to Education in Japan, Tokyo, 1950.
  • Report of the United States Education Missions to Japan.
  • Guide to New Education in Japan: Volume 1 Part A.
  • Education in the New Japan: Volume 1 Text.
  • Development in Japanese Education, Tokyo, 1950.
  • Provisional Manual for Military Government in Japan: 8th US army 171 p. p. .

Box 2

  • IFEL-Inst. For Educational Leadership. (Essentials of Teacher Preparation | Objectives of General Education | Plans for VIIth & VIIIth IFEL, 1951-52 | Memorandum: 4th Report of IFEL activities for VIII Sessions Covering Periods from 18 February-14 March 1952 (1 April 1952) | Memorandum: 3rd of IFEL Activities for VIII Sessions Covering Periods from 4-15 February 1952 (6 March 1) | Memorandum: 2nd Report of IFEL Activities for VIII Sessions Covering Periods from 21 January-2 February 1952 (18 February 1952) | Memorandum: 1st Report of IFEL Activities for VIII Sessions Covering Periods form 7-18 January 1952 (5 February 1952) | Total Participants of IFEL By Courses I-VIII Sessions | List of Schools Attached to Faculties of Education as of February, 1951 -)
  • Try-Out Schools.
  • Ministry of Education History. (Special Report: The Organizational Development of the Ministry of Education (12 September 1946) | Special Report: A History of the Educational Policy of the Ministry of Education as Evidenced by the Directives and Instructions Issued 1871-1945 (20 November 1946))
  • Institute for Educational Leadership General Index of the Thirty-Six Published Reports of V & VII [sic] Workshops. (General Index of the Thirty-Six Published Reports of V & VII Session Workshops)
  • Research Reports: Miscellaneous. (Special Report: The Appointment of Government Officials under the Civil Service System, Amended as of 1 April 1946 (9 October 1946) | Special Report: Institute for Permanent Peace (Kokyu Heiwa Kenkyu Jo) -Revised (2 May 1946) | Special Report: International Cultural Association (Kokusai Bunka Kyoka) (16 April 1946) | Special Report: The society of Friends of Eastern Art (Tozo Eijitsu Kokusai Kenkyukai) (13 April 1946) | Special Report: Prominent Characteristics of the Taikyo Sect of Sectarian Shinto (1 April 1946) | Special Report: Prominent Characteristics of Shusei Sectarian Shinto (1 April 1946) | Translation: Regulations Governing the Allocation of Routine Work Among the Various Divisions and Sections of the Broadcasting Corporation of Japan (30 march 1946) | Special Report: Women’s Legal Status in Japan (11 March 1946) | Translation: The Charter of the Broadcasting Corporation of Japan-Revised 22 January 1946 (9 March 1946))
  • “Desirable Characteristics. . . “. (Ministry of Education Bulletin: “Desirable Characteristics of The New Lower and New Upper Secondary Schools”)
  • School BD-Hyogo: Enclosure 1 (English Version).
  • Romanji and English Language Reform.
  • Krueger Library, Kyoto. (Report on Krueger Library (Brief Sketch))
  • School Boards. (Publications Analysis: Japan’s New Educational System no. 224, 23 November 1948 | LS, Sugi Mibai to Mr.  S.  Anderson, 11 December 1950 | The Activity of Kyoto School Board & Kyoto Prefectural Board of Education Annual Report 1949 – 1950 (folded in a book) | Board of Education and their secretariats | Publications Analysis: Board of Education in Japan (Number 212, 7 October 1948) | Study of the Board of Education in the Kinki Military Government Region; conducted by Ronald S.  Anderson 27 July 1950  | Conference on The School Board, It’s Functions and Relationships | Memorandum & Article: Final Report on School Board Election & 38 Women successful in Education Elections, respectively  | Dialogue on School Board Law, accompanied by letter from JJB to Ex Sec.  11 September 1948 | Japanese language newspaper (The Miyako Sinbun) | LS, Sugi Mibai to Mr.  R.  S.  Anderson (News-letter III), September 1950 | Unknown | Article & Summary: Board of Education [10 September] & School Board – activities designed to make citizens more aware of the School Board)

Box 3

  • Screening–Namba’s petition for rescreening, .
  • Teacher Survey, 1947.
  • Educational Statistics, Japan 1949-1950.
  • Postwar Reform in Educations–(Eels).

Box 4

  • Japanese book in Japanese writing (White Papers, 1950).
  • Japan Teachers Union: Historical Materials.
  • Communism During Occupation.
  • Japan Teachers Union White Papers, 1950.
  • Student Communists: Zengakuren SCAP files (Dr. Ells, Dr.  Carley).

Box 5

  • Occupation Evaluation.
  • Terakoya Textbook.
  • Kyoko: textbook on Filial Piety.
  • Daigaku: Textbook of Great Learning.
  • Morals Course – History.
  • Japan – Nagasaki Atom Bomb.
  • Shushin Lecture.
  • Occupation Policy, Conference on, 1948.
  • Evaluation of Occupation 1945-1947.
  • Thought Control, Prewar Japan.
  • Occupation, History of MacArthur’s Speech, Eichelbergers Evaluation.
  • Junior colleges-EELLS.
  • Higher Education in Occupation.

Box 6a

  • Normal Schools History (15 folders).

Box 6b

  • Tokyo Bunrika History.
  • History of Education Theory Through the Meiji, Taisho and Showa.
  • “Influence of England and America Upon the Japanese Educational Issues” by: Tokiomi Kaijo [Handwritten Notes].
  • fd: Postwar Reform in Education.
  • Education Ministry- “Report on the Progress of Education During the Year 1952-1953”.

Box 7

  • Mori Arinori-PhotoBioger.
  • Keio University. Teacher-Training.
  • Kyoto University Teacher -Training.
  • Kyushu University Teacher -Training.
  • Students (Professors Abroad 1917-1939).
  • Normal School Texts.
  • Textbooks Japan, History of.
  • Kempei Thai Textbook: Research Materials.
  • Japan: Culture Shikoku.

Box 8

  • American Influence on Japanese Education (Hidaka).
  • Junior Colleges.
  • Aoyama Gakuin.
  • Aptitude Tests (Noken Tests).
  • Asahigaoka Case.
  • Central Council on Education Statistics for 1970’s.
  • Changes in Japanese Education As Revealed in Textbooks, Japan Quarterly Vol. II 1985.
  • Course Studies (Elem) School Education Law University Standards.
  • Higher Education, Innovation in.
  • History of Japan-Chart.
  • Educational Broadcasting.
  • News Clippings on Education 1973.
  • Newspaper, History of.
  • History of Japanese Education-Meiji Period.
  • Japan School Visits-Tip, 1962 Nagano Prefecture.
  • Japan Monographs.
  • Booklet: Japan’s Cultural History.
  • Mathematics–Husen’s Study.
  • OECD Survey, Japan.
  • Private Education.
  • Personality–Chie Nakane, Japanese.

Box 9

  • Teacher Education, History of.
  • Religion-Buddhism.
  • Secondary and Tech Education, Japan.
  • (Textbook Authorization) Ienaga Case.
  • Japan Religion.
  • UNESCO’s Associated Schools Project, Japan.
  • Relocation Centers.
  • Dilemma of American Youth-Overhead Chart.
  • East-West Center-History.
  • Ecology-Earth 2020.
  • Energy in Hawaiʻi–project to document waste.
  • Yobiko
  • Hawaiʻi Population and Housing: Romanzo Adams Social Research Laboratory Bibliography.

Box 10

  • Newspaper Clippings (Jan -May 1948)- | Complete w/ index of articles.
  • Press Translations-May 1948.
  • Nippon Times Scrapbook – Summer 1947.
  • Information Program on New Middle Schools-March 1948 .
  • Press Translations-March 1948.
  • Scrapbook 1946.
  • Scrapbook: New Clippings-April 1948.
  • Press Translations-April 1948.
  • Scrapbook: Clippings on Education – May-Sept 1948 (6 folders).
  • Nippon Times Scrapbook – Aug 1946 -1947.
  • Scrapbook 1946.
  • Scrapbook 1946.
  • Scrapbook 1947.
  • Scrapbook 1947.
  • Scrapbook 1947.

Box 11

  • “History of Japanese Textbooks: Textbooks and Making of the Japanese Mind” by Dr. Tomitaro Karasawa [outline] Typescript (Blue ink on onion skin) 1956, fl.  Inscribed to “Dr.    S.  ANDERSON” with additional penciled “O Ed” Tied with fabric ties in two places along top margin.  Originally in Box 7.
  • “History of Japanese Textbooks: Textbooks and Making of the Japanese Mind” by Dr. Tomitaro Karasawa [outline] 1956, photocopy made for preservation purposes, August 1995.
  • “Textbooks Japan, History of” A file containing scrapbook of newspaper clippings mounted on low grade paper with ink border and parallel lines. Preservation Copy made August 1995 and original discarded.  (4 folders).
  • Report Kyushu University | a)1 sheet 26 x 18. 3 cm. Holographed document, English, attached to  | b)5 sheets 26. 7 x 20. 4 cm.  Typescript, English, summary of lectures (Subject, year, references and texts, professor); Top page acid-burned from contact with a) above  | c)3 sheets 36. 5 x 25. 5 cm.  Holographed in Japanese characters with an occasional bibliographic reference in romanji letters (English and German); first page slightly acid burned  | d)1 sheet 25 x 17. 7 cm.  Holograph in Japanese Characters.
  • “Problems of the Japanese University” by Hideo Ayama (Professor of Economics, Kyoto University)-Removed form Box 5 file “Higher education in occupation Eells files”.
  • Removed from Box 5 file “Higher education in occupation Eells files”(3 folders).

Box 12

  • “International Study of University Admissions in Japan” by Daishiro Hidaka February 1962 (3 folders).
  • “Outline of Educational Level of Japan,” November 1959, pp 198 Removed from Secondary and Tech. Education-Japan in Box 9.
  • “Examining the Textbook Examination System” Removed from Secondary and Tech. Education-Japan in Box 9.

Box 13

  • China Letter Peeking.
  • Nationalist China.
  • China Spare Time in Education.
  • China-Mobility by Exams.
  • Understanding China.
  • China Teaching Materials.
  • India Literacy Village.
  • India Teaching Materials.

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