Robert Baker Aitken Papers

  • Overview
  • Autobiographical Summary of Robert Baker Aitken’s Career in Hawaiʻi
  • Bibliography of Materials by or about Aitken


Robert Aitken was a well-known author and one of the foremost leaders of Zen Buddhism in the Western world. He also founded the Diamond Sangha, a Zen Buddhist organization headquartered in Honolulu, Hawaiʻi.  Aitken wrote the autobiographical summary of his career in Hawaiʻi, below, after donating his papers to the Library in June, 2003.

The archive includes Robert Aitken’s published writings, manuscripts, sermons, and correspondence with family, friends, students and other Buddhist teachers. These include such well-known figures as D. T. Suzuki, Gary Snyder, Nakagawa Soen, Yasutani Haku’un and Yamada Koun. The collection also contains extensive materials related to the founding and development of the Diamond Sangha. It should prove to be a fruitful resource for scholars in a wide range of fields, including Zen Buddhism, history of religions, American Studies, new religions, and Asian literature.

Autobiographical Summary of Robert Baker Aitken’s Career in Hawaiʻi (2003)

I came to Hawaiʻi with my parents in 1922, when I was five years old. My father was an ethnologist at the Bishop Museum. His study, Ethnology of Tubuai, is still in print. He was the first to earn a master’s degree at the University of Hawaiʻi. I attended public schools here, with the exception of kindergarten at Hanahauʻoli, two years of junior high at Punahou, and two years in California, including my final three semesters of high school. I attended the University of Hawaiʻi for 2 1/2 years before World War II, and two thereafter, graduating in 1947 with a degree in English Literature. Among my professors I was especially close to Daniel Stemple, Carl Stroven, Willard Wilson, Yukuo Uyehara, Andrew Lind, and A. Grove Day. Close friends among classmates included C. Frederick Schutte, late attorney in the Honolulu firm that bears his name, Jean McKillop (King), and Thomas M. C. Chang, retired professor of Educational Psychology at U.H. Acquaintances included Patsy Takemoto (Mink), Daniel Inouye, Duke Cho Choy, retired pediatrician, and Mary Whang (Choy). After the war, I lived near the University and had supper regularly at Hemmenway Hall with Marion and Allan Saunders. I was president of my senior class.

I returned to the University in 1949 for my masters degree in Japanese studies, graduating in 1950. Dr. Stemple was my thesis chair, and members of my committee included Cheuk-woon Taam, then East Asia librarian. I had a peripheral role in the East-West Philosopher’s Conference the summer of 1949, and worked as a kind of gofer with Greg Sinclair, Charles Moore, and D. T. Suzuki. This was the beginning of a long friendship with Dr. Suzuki.

Later my connections with the University included a three year stint at the East-West Center as a program advisor in the Institute for Student Interchange, as student activities coordinator, and as alumnae secretary. Ms. Saunders was my supervisor during much of this time. I subsequently spent a year with the Youth Development Center as assistant to my friend Dr. Chang in the Upward Bound Program, and a year as English instructor at Kapʻiolani Community College.

Since the late 1960s I have been closely associated with the Religion Department of the University. I am a friend and colleague of David Chappell, Professor of Chinese Buddhism. I have spoken in classes in the Religion Department, taken part in colloquia and conferences which the department has sponsored, and written articles for its Journal of Buddhist-Christian Studies.

My record of community involvements in Honolulu includes stints in the late 1940s and early 1950s at community association coordination in Mōʻiliʻili and Wahiawā. In this work I profited from consultations with my then father-in-law, Ferris Laune, Executive Secretary of the Honolulu Council of Social Agencies.

I have had a long association with peace and social justice movements in Hawaiʻi. I took part in the Mother’s Day Walk for Peace in 1952 with Marion and John Kelly, an anti-nuclear protest, and the first of many demonstrations. During the Vietnam War I was active as a resister and draft counselor, and was close to James Douglass, Walter Johnston, Oliver Lee, George Simpson, and Anita and Allen Trubitt. In 1967, while at the Youth Development Center I took part in the Bachman Hall sit-in as part of the faculty contingent. In 1972, I walked around the island for peace and social justice in a group led by Jim Albertini and John Wittick.

I am a founding member of the American Friends Service Committee, Hawaiʻi, and served on its first board of directors, chaired by Robert Bobilin. I attended the meetings called by Dean Saunders to establish the American Civil Liberties Union, and have been active in that organization since, taking part in its campaigns, including the Camp Smith Cross case and more recently the various actions in support of same-sex marriage.

My major work through the years has been as founder, leader, and teacher in the Diamond Sangha, a Zen Buddhist society. With my wife Anne, I established the Koko An Zendo of the Diamond Sangha in Honolulu in 1959, and the Maui Zenda in 1969. In recent times the Diamond Sangha established a second Honolulu temple, the Palolo Zen Center, where I presently reside. The Diamond Sangha is now an international network, with centers on neighbor islands and in California, Arizona, Texas, Washington State, Germany, Argentina, Australia and New Zealand.

I have been fairly active in the local Buddhist community, beginning with a stint as a Sunday school teacher at the Hompa Hongwanji in 1957 and 1958, where my supervisor was the now retired Bishop Yoshiaki Fujitani. In recent times I have been a member of the Hawaiʻi Association of International Buddhists.

In the macro dimension I am well established as a teacher of Zen Buddhism. I take part in Buddhist symposia in North America, particularly in the San Francisco Bay Area, and am especially close to leaders of the San Francisco Zen Center. I am co-founder with Nelson Foster of the Buddhist Peace Fellowship, now an international network of chapters concerned about the application of Buddhism in social, political and economic realms.

I am an author of eight books, co-author of one more, on aspects of Zen Buddhism, brought out by major publishers, including North Point; Farrar, Strauss, and Giroux; Pantheon; Parallax; Shambhala; and Counterpoint. Some of these books have been translated and published in Spanish, German, Dutch and Italian, with one to come in French. I am a frequent contributor to Turning Wheel, journal of the Buddhist Peace Fellowship, and have written also for a large number of other journals, mostly Buddhist, but also including Parabola and The Wallace Stevens Journal. I’ve also written a number of forewords to books by friends and colleagues, including a lengthy introduction to Hee-Jin Kim’s Dogen Kigen: Mystical Realist. I did extensive research on Dwight Goddard, an early pioneer in Buddhist studies, and contributed a long introduction to the reissue by Beacon Press of his seminal work, A Buddhist Bible.

On moving to Kaimū-Kalapana on Hawaiʻi Island in 1997, I built a small home across the driveway from my son, Thomas Laune Aitken, a school counselor. I became ill with Hodgkins’ Disease, and underwent chemotherapy and radiation, which ultimately was at least temporarily cured. The Zen Center of San Francisco sent an attendant to look after me, and since I have hired a series of many people in that role. In time I also hired a secretary, again the first of a series. I started a Zen group in my home.

In the course of this retirement I have taken part in Hoʻopakele, a group of mainly Hawaiian people interested in decarceration and prison reform. I helped to organize the East Hawaiʻi Island Chapter of the Buddhist Peace Fellowship, and have taken part in regular vigils and periodic rallies.

I have continued to contribute to Buddhist and other publications, and am, at this writing, completing preparing manuscripts for my 10th book, The Morning Star: New and Collected Writings, and a revised edition of my first book, A Zen Wave: Basho’s Haiku and Zen.

Bibliography of Materials by or about Aitken


  • Zen Training. A Personal Account. Honolulu: Old Island Books (1960).
  • A Buddhist Reader. Honolulu: Young Buddhist Association (1961).
  • Hawaiʻi Upward Bound Writing and Art 1966: A Project of the Office of Economic Opportunity. Robert Aitken, Editor (1966).
  • A Zen Wave: Basho’s Haiku and Zen. New York: Weatherhill (1978). ISBN 0-8348-0 137-X
  • Taking the Path of Zen. San Francisco: North Point Press (1982). ISBN 0-86547-080-4.
  • Wchodzac na Scieike Zen. Lublin, Hutnicza (Poland): Wydawnictwo Vegan (1982). Translation by Maria Olejniczak-Skarsgard.
  • The Mind of Clover: Essays in Zen Buddhist Ethics. San Francisco: North Point Press (1984). ISBN 0-86547- 158-4.
  • Zen als Lebenspraxis. Munchen (Germany): Ausgabe Eugen Diederichs Verlag (1988). Translation by Christian Quatmann. ISBN 3-424-00928-8.
  • Zen-een introductie. Baarn: Bigot & Van Rossum (1988). Translation by Chris Mouwen. ISBN 90-6134-306-2.
  • Ethik des Zen. Munchen: Ausgabe Eugen Diederichs Verlag (1989). Translation by Christian Quatmann. ISBN 3-424-00929-6.
  • The Gateless Barrier: The Wu-menkuan (Mumonkan). San Francisco: North Point Press (1990). ISBN 0- 86547-442-7.
  • The Dragon who Never Sleeps: Verses for Zen Buddhist Practice. Berkeley: Parallax Press (1992). ISBN 0- 938077-60-0.
  • Encouraging Words: Zen Buddhist Teachings for Western Students. San Francisco and New York: Pantheon Books (1993). ISBN 0-679-75652-3.
  • The Ground We Share: Everyday Practice Buddhist and Christian. with David Steindl-Rast. Ligouri, Missouri: Triumph Books, (1994). ISBN 0-89243-644-1.
  • The Practice of Perfection: The Paramitas from a Zen Buddhist Perspective. San Francisco and New York: Pantheon Books (1994). ISBN 0-679-43510-7.
  • Original Dwelling Place: Zen Buddhist Essays. Washington, DC: Counterpoint (1996). ISBN 1-887178-16-3.
  • Der spirituelle Weg: Zen-Buddhismus und Christentum im talichen Leben – Ein Dialog. Munchen: Knaur (1996). Translation by Franchita Cattani. ISBN 3-426-86117-8.
  • La Pratica della Perfezione. Roma: Casa Editrice Astrolabio -Ubaldini Editore (1996). Translation by Giampaolo Fiorentini.
  • Zen Master Raven: Savings and Doings of a Wise Bird. Boston: Tuttle (2002). ISBN 0-8048-3473-3

Contributions to Books

  • “The Zen Buddhist Path of Self-realization.” A chapter in What is Meditation? edited by John White. Garden City, New York: Anchor Press Doubleday (1974): 129-137.
  • “Excerpts from Coyote Roshi Goroku.” A chapter in Coyote’s Journal edited by James Koller, Carroll ‘Gogisgi’ Arnett, Steve Nemirow & Peter Blue Cloud. Berkeley, California: Wingbow Press (1982): 47-48.
  • “Gandhi, Dogen and Deep Ecology.” A chapter in The Path of Compassion, Writings on Socially Engaged Buddhism edited by Fred Eppsteiner. Berkeley: Parallax Press (1985): 86-92.
  • Foreword to Looking to America to Solve Thailand’s Problems by Rajavaramuni, Pilla (Ptayudh Payutto). Bangkok: Sathirakoses Nagapradipa Foundation and The Thai-American Project California (1986).
  • Foreword to The Record of Tung-shan translated by William F. Powell. Honolulu: University of Hawaiʻi Press (1986): vii.
  • “Kanzeon.” A chapter in Not Mixing Up Buddhism- Essays on Women and Buddhist Practice edited by Michelle Hill, Deborah Hopkinson & Eileen Kiera. Fredonia, NY: White Pine Press (1986): 24-29.
  • “Openness and Engagement: Memories of Dr. D. T. Suzuki.” A chapter in A Zen Life: D. T. Suzuki Remembered edited by Abe Masao. Weatherhill (1986): 210.
  • Foreword to Buddhism and Zen by Ruth Strout McCandless & Nyogen Senzaki. San Francisco: North Point Press (1987): vii-xv.
  • “Buddhist.” A chapter in Nonviolence in Hawaiʻi‘s Spiritual Traditions edited by Glenn D. Paige & Sarah Gilliatt. Honolulu: Spark M. Matsunaga Institute for Peace (1991): 25-32.
  • “Coyote Roshi Goroku.” A chapter in A Coyote Reader edited by William Bright. Berkeley & Los Angeles: University of California Press (1993): 143-148.
  • “Precepts and Responsible Practice.” A chapter in For a Future to be Possible by Thich Nhat Hanh. Berkeley: Parallax Press (1993): 101-105.
  • Foreword to A Buddhist Bible by Dwight Goddard. Boston: Beacon Press (1994): vii-xxii.
  • “Right Livelihood for the Western Buddhist.” Mindfulness and Meaningful Work Explorations in Right Livelihood edited by Claude Whitmyer. Berkeley: Parallax Press (1994): 36-40.
  • “Precepts and Responsible Practice.” A chapter in Engaged Buddhist Reader edited by Arnold Kotler. Berkeley: Parallax Press (1996): 234-237.
  • “Zen Ethics” with Michael Toms. A chapter in Buddhism in the West edited by Michael Toms. Carlsbad, California: Hay House Inc. (1998):69-82.
  • “The Interreligious Realization: Ruminations of an American Zen Buddhist.” A chapter in John Paul II and Interreligious Dialogue edited by Byron L. Sherwin and Harold Kasimov. Maryknoll, New York: Orbis Books (1999): 96-107.
  • “The Net of Vows.” A chapter in Buddhist Peacework: Creating Cultures of Peace edited by David W. Chappell. Boston: Wisdom Publications (1999): 93-101.
  • “Formal Practice: Buddhist or Christian.” A chapter in Christians Talk About Buddhist Meditation / Buddhists Talk about Christian Prayer edited by Rita M. Gross and Terry C. Muck. New York: Continuum (2003): 69.
  • “Gatha.” A contribution to Poets Against the War edited by San Hamill. New York: Thunder’s Mouth Press Nation Books (2003): 8.

Journal Articles and Papers by Aitken

  • “Basho’s Attitude of Mind: An Approach to Haiku.” Journal of Oriental Literature 1 (July 1947): 36-39.
  • “Original Haiku Contributions.” Journal of Oriental Literature 1 (July 1947): 40-41.
  • “Correcting our Approach to Buddhism.” The Middle Way 37/3 (November 1962).
  • “Two Approaches to Teaching English.” Idea Exchange 2/1& 2 (Jan-Feb 1967): 20-25.
  • “LSD and the New American Zen.” The Eastern Buddhist New Series 4/2 (October, 1971): 141-144.
  • “Samadhi and Cognition.” AP Newsletter Association for Humanistic Psychology (November 1973): 1.
  • “Peace is the Way.” Fellowship 40/4 (April 1974): 15.
  • “Yasutani Haku’un Roshi, 1885-1973.” The Eastern Buddhist New Series 7/1 (May, 1974): 150-152.
  • “But You Know Your Moves.” The Laughing Man Magazine 1 (September 1975): 25-29.
  • “Zen Cribbing.” A review of The Sound of One Hand: 281 Zen Koans with Answers. Shambhala Review of Books and Ideas 5/1&2 (Winter 1976): 64-65.
  • “Thoughts on Ecumenicalism.” Kalavinka. Voice of Dharma 2 /4 (September 15, 1977).
  • “Bodhi Day 1977, an Address to the West Maui Buddhist Association.” Lahaina Jodo Mission Series 2 (1978).
  • “The Ultimate Coalition: Reflections on the Bangor Action.” Coevolution Quarterly 19 (September 1978): 25-27.
  • “A Bodhi Day Address.” Kavalinka Voice of Dharma 3/5 (December 1978): 2.
  • “The Second Grave Precept: No Stealing.” The Ten Directions 1/ 3 (September 1980): 1.
  • “The First Precept: No Killing.” Impulse 7/1 (Winter 1980): 42-44.
  • “Gandhi, Dogen and Deep Ecology.” Zero 5 (1981): 52-58.
  • “The Cloud of Unknowing and the Mumonkan: Christian and Buddhist Meditation Methods.” Buddhist-Christian Studies 1 (1981): 87-91.
  • “A review of Beyond Existentialism and Zen.” Buddhist-Christian Studies 2 (1982):152-154.
  • “Zen Practice and Psychotherapy.” The Journal of Transpersonal Psychology 14/2 (1982): 161-170.
  • “A review of A Zen Forest: Savings of the Masters.” The Eastern Buddhist New Series 15/2 (Autumn 1982): 149-152.
  • “Wallace Stevens and Zen.” The Wallace Stevens Journal 6/3-4 (Fall 1982): 69-73.
  • “The Second Grave Precept: No Stealing.” The Middle Way 58/3 (November 1983): 169-174.
  • “The Buddhist Way of Peace.” Fellowship 8/12 (December 1983): 6.
  • “Poem: Ode to Rosa Parks.” Earth First! Yule Edition 5/2 (December 1984): 28.
  • “Engaged Spirituality.” Australian Buddhist Peace Fellowship Newsletter (Autumn 1985): 6-7.
  • “Spiritual Practice and Social Action” with Joanna Macy. Australian Buddhist Peace Fellowship Newsletter (Autumn 1985): 8-11.
  • “Soliloquy.” Spring Wind, Buddhist Cultural Forum 5/3 (Fall 1985): 128-135.
  • A letter to the Editor of the Conscience and Military Tax Campaign Newsletter 22 (Spring 1986): 4.
  • “Views and Reviews: Play.” The Eastern Buddhist New Series 19/1 (Spring 1986): 118-122.
  • “Buddhism Challenges the Peacemaker.” Buddhist Peace Fellowship Newsletter 8/ 3 (Summer 1986).
  • “Not Killing.” Whole Earth Review 51 (Summer 1986): 63.
  • “A review of The Sword of No-sword by John Stevens.” The Eastern Buddhist New Series 19/2 (Autumn 1986): 133-137.
  • “Soliloquy.” Mind Moon Circle (Fall 1986): 2-5.
  • “Sisters and Brothers Sutra.” Mind Moon Circle (Winter 1986): 2-9.
  • “The Tail of The Buffalo.” The Middle Way 61/4 (February 1987): 215-217.
  • “The Paramitas.” Mind Moon Circle (Spring 1987): 1-5.
  • “The Middle Way.” Parabola, A Magazine of Myth and Tradition 12/ 2 (May 1987): 40-43.
  • “Buddhism and Peace.” Buddhist Peace Fellowship Newsletter (Summer 1987): 9-10.
  • “The Second Paramita.” Mind Moon Circle (Summer 1987): 1-5.
  • “Play.” Mind Moon Circle (Summer 1987): 2-6.
  • “The Future of Zen Buddhism in the West.” Mind Moon Circle (Winter 1987): 1-3.
  • “The Five Modes of Tung-shan, translation and with commentary by Robert Aitken Roshi.” Avaloka: A Journal of Traditional Religion and Culture 2/1 (Winter Solstice 1987): 3-12.
  • The Five Modes of Tung-shan, Modes III, IV and V, translation and with commentary by Robert Aitken Roshi.” Avaloka: A Journal of Traditional Religion and Culture 2/2 (Summer Solstice 1988): 3-12.
  • “The Third Paramita, Ksanti.” Mind Moon Circle (Autumn 1988): 1-3.
  • “Pranidhana Paramita.” Mind Moon Circle (Spring 1989): 1-4.
  • “The Prayna Paramita.” Mind Moon Circle (Summer 1989): 1-6.
  • “Words from the Roshi.” Mind Moon Circle (Summer 1989): 14-15.
  • “Guatemalan Journal.” Buddhist Peace Fellowship Newsletter (Fall 1989): 16-18.
  • “Translation: Wu-men Kuan, Case 11: ‘Chao-chou and the Hermits’.” The Eastern Buddhist. New Series 22/2 (Autumn 1989): 78-84.
  • “The Upaya Paramita.” Mind Moon Circle (Autumn 1989): 1-4.
  • “Kanzeon.” Mind Moon Circle (Winter 1989): 1-6.
  • “Tax Resistance in Context.” Mountain Record (Fall- Winter 1989-90): 23-25.
  • “The Dragon Who Never Sleeps: Verses for Zen Buddhist Practice.” Eastern Buddhist. New Series 23/ 1 (Spring 1990): 45-55.
  • “Words from the Roshi.” Interesting Times: Newsletter of the Columbia Willamette Greens 2/5 (May 1990): 11.
  • “Right Livelihood for the Western Buddhist.” Primary Point: An International Journal of Buddhism 7/2 (Summer 1990): 19.
  • “Intercepting the Precepts.” Buddhist Peace Fellowship Newsletter (Spring 1991): 23-24.
  • “Authority and Exploitation- Three Voices: Robert Aitken, David Steindl-Rast and Diane Shainberg.” Tricycle 1/ 1 (Fall 1991): 67-72.
  • “Giving: The First Paramita.” Turning Wheel (Fall 1991): 12-15.
  • “Engaged Anarchism.” Turning Wheel (Fall 1991): 23.
  • “Resisting This Crazy War.” Buddhist Peace Fellowship Newsletter (Winter 1991): 13-14.
  • “On Translation: The Rectification of Names.” Tricycle 1/2 (Winter 1991): 79.
  • “Buddhism and Ecology.” Pontificium Consilium pro Dialogo inter Religiones Bulletin 79 (1992): 58-65.
  • “Sangha Diamante-Una Breva Historia.” Viento Dorado 1/1 (June 1992): 71-74.
  • “The Bodhisattva Vows.” Tricycle 1/4 (Summer 1992): 63-65.
  • “Doors.” Turning Wheel (Winter 1992): 27.
  • “Contemplation and Action (1): Engaged Buddhism from a Zen Perspective.” Studies in Formative Spirituality Special Issue: A Buddhist-Christian Dialogue 14/1 (February 1993): 91-104.
  • “Buddhist as Revolutionary, A Conversation with Robert Aitken.” Inquiring Mind: A Semi-annual Journal of the Vipassana Community 9/2 (Spring 1993): L
  • “Giving the First Paramita.” Mountain Record 11/3 (Spring 1993): 33.
  • “A review of No Barrier: Unlocking the Zen Koan by Thomas Cleary.” Tricycle 2/4 (Summer 1993): 88-90.
  • “About Money.” Turning Wheel (Summer 1993): 15-16.
  • “‘We Are All the Same Being’: A Buddhist Perspective.” ESA Advocate 15/6 (July- August 1993): 2-3.
  • A letter to the Editor of Tricycle 3/2 (Winter 1993): 84-85.
  • “Ancestors: Dwight Goddard.” Tricycle 3/3 (Spring 1994): 14-16.
  • “Right Speech.” Turning Wheel (Winter 1994): 15-17.
  • “A review of Master Dogen’s Shobogenzo, Book 1 translated by Gudo Nishimura and Chodo Cross.” Buddhist Christian Studies 15 (1995): 265-268.
  • “Satori-Sunyata in Zen Buddhism.” Pontificium Consilium pro Dialogo inter Religiones Bulletin 90 (1995): 285-294.
  • “A review of The Essential Teachings of Zen Master Hakuin: A Translation of the Sokko-roku Kaian-fusetsu by Norman Waddell.” The Eastern Buddhist 28/1 (Spring 1995): 163-164.
  • “Prevailing views, right views.” Religious Socialism 19/2(Spring 1995): 1, 4-6.
  • “Death: A Zen Buddhist Perspective.” University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa Buddhist Studies Program (Summer Session 1995): 7.
  • “Tools for the Garden.” Seed Cloud (Summer 1995): 22-23.
  • “Maezumi Haku’yu Taizan, Roshi.” Mountain Record 14/1 (Fall 1995): 55.
  • “Testimony on Sexual Orientation and the Law.” Hawaiʻi Association of International Buddhists Newsletter 4/3 (Fall/Winter 1995): 1&3.
  • “The Christian-Buddhist Life and Works of Dwight Goddard.” Buddhist Christian Studies 16 (1996): 3-10.
  • “Shunning and Intervention.” Turning Wheel (Spring 1996): 19.
  • “Roundtable with: Robert Aitken, Richard Baker Roshi, Ram Dass, Joan Halifax.” Tricycle (Fall 1996): 101-109.
  • “A Letter from Roshi.” Mind Moon Circle (Spring 1997): 28.
  • “Right Speech: Plunging Consciously into Karma.” Mind Moon Circle (Summer 1997): 1-4.
  • “Do You Remember?” Kenyon Review. New Series 19/1(Winter 1997):22-25.
  • “The Dhyana Paramita.” Mind Moon Circle (Spring 1998): 1-4.
  • “Buddhadasa and the BASE Community Ideal.” Turning Wheel (Summer 1998): 28-30.
  • “Remembering R. H. Blyth.” Tricycle (Spring 1998): 22-25.
  • “A Commentary on Dogen’s Fukan Zazengi.” Bright Water (Winter 1998)
  • “Buddhism Without Walls.” Tricycle (Spring 1999): 44-51.
  • “Case 13 Blue Cliff Record.” Pathless Path 1/6 (April 1999).
  • “Case 13 Blue Cliff Record (continued).” Pathless Path 1/7 (May 1999).
  • “Right Reading.” Tricycle (Summer 1999): 94.
  • “The Blue Cliff Record, Case 3, Ma-Tsu: Unwell.” Mind Moon Circle (Autumn 1999): 7-12.
  • “Robert Aitken Responds (to Yasutani Roshi: The Hardest Koan). Tricycle Fall 1999: 67-68.
  • “Stoneless Pieces: Coyote Roshi Goroku.” Mind Moon Circle (Winter 1999): 20.
  • “The Dance of Affinity.” The International Journal of Transpersonal Studies 18/1 (1999): 23-28.
  • “Greetings from Robert Aitken, Roshi.” Zen for Insiders 1/2 (December 1999): 2.
  • “The Shadow of the Mountain.” Mind Moon Circle (Summer 2000): 1-6.
  • “Formal Practice: Buddhist or Christian.” Buddhist-Christian Studies Volume 22 (2002): 63-76.
  • “Restorative Justice: Polynesian Style.” Hawaiʻi Island Journal (February 1-15 2002): 15.
  • “Zen in English Literature and Oriental Classics.” Buddhadharma (Winter 2002): 81.
  • “In It for the Long Haul.” Turning Wheel (Winter 2002-2003): 13.
  • “Giving Full Circle.” Tricycle (Summer 2003): 42.

Newspaper Articles By Robert Aitken

  • “Robert B. Aitken Says: Rearmament Problem Serious One in Japan.” Honolulu Advertiser (October 7, 1951).
  • “Common Humanity is Basis for Inter-religious Encounter.” Honolulu Advertiser (October 23, 1993):A7.
  • “Buddhist Precept Encourages Same-sex Marriage Concept.” Honolulu Advertiser (May 4, 1996): A6.

Newspaper Articles About Robert Aitken

  • “Train Yourselves, Buddhists Urged.” Newspaper Unknown, Date: Mid-60s to early 70’s.
  • “Robert Aitken Addresses Buddha Day Service.” Honolulu Advertiser (April 15, 1967): B5:1
  • “Robert Aitken to Open Zen Center on Maui.” Honolulu Advertiser (May 14, 1969): F18:1
  • “Zen Center for Hippies Planned for Maui.” Honolulu Star-Bulletin (May 14, 1969): G12:1.
  • “Zen Commune for ‘Dropouts’ Gets Go-ahead.” Honolulu Star-Bulletin (June 11, 1969): A20:1.
  • “Robert Aitken is Unusual Zen Master.” Honolulu Star-Bulletin (August 16, 1975): A5:1.
  • “Maui Zen Colony Holds Unorthodox Encounter Sessions.” Honolulu Advertiser (May 1, 1976): B6.
  • “Trident Protesters Get Zen Backing.” The Seattle Times (May 21, 1978): A26: 1.
  • “R. Aitken, D. Nakamura, K. Rinchen, A. Bloom Reflect on Significance of Buddha’s Life.” Honolulu Advertiser (April 5 1986): A5.
  • “Now and Zen; Zen Master Robert Aitken Still Shuns Distinction.” Honolulu Advertiser (April 17, 1993): B4.
  • “Temple in Palolo Valley to be Completed ‘When It’s Done’ Says Robert Aitken.” Honolulu Advertiser (April 17, 1993): B4.
  • “A Master of Zen Leads the Way with ‘Words’.” Honolulu Advertiser (August 29, 1993): F5.
  • “Teaching a Zen for the World, Not Apart From It.” San Francisco Examiner (January 30, 1994): Dl:1.
  • “A Different Viewpoint.” The Nation (March 11, 1995): C1:1.
  • “Zensei.” Honolulu Advertiser (September 21, 1997): E1:2.

Other Articles About Robert Aitken

  • Dawson, Geoff. “Zen: Now” with “Gandhi, Dogen and Deep Ecology” by Robert Aitken. Simply Living 2/1 (1980’s): 92-97.
  • Nagai, Yuji, Editor. “POW in Japan to Zen Master.” East West Photo Journal 1/ 3 (Winter 1980): 18-21.
  • Bodian, Stephen. “Letting the Mind Come Forth: A Conversation with Aitken Gyoun Roshi.” The Ten Directions 1/ 3 (September 1980): 1.
  • Dougherty, Gerald. A review of “A Zen Wave: Basho’s Haiku and Zen.” Eastern Buddhist. New Series 15/2 (Autumn 1982): 146-149.
  • Snelling, John. “Robert Aitken Roshi Interviewed by the Editor, Part I.” The Middle Way (August 1984): 71.
  • Kirchner, Thomas. A review of “Taking the Path of Zen.” Eastern Buddhist. New Series 17/2 (Autumn 1984): 145-147.
  • Snelling, John. “Robert Aitken Roshi Interviewed by the Editor, Part 2.” The Middle Way (November 1984): 159.
  • “An Interview with Robert Aitken.” FAS Society Journal (Winter 1985-86): 14.
  • Zen Buddhism in North America. Toronto: Canada Zen Lotus Society (1986): 15.
  • Griswold, Jerome, ZenPoetry, American Critics: American Poetry, Zen Criticism: Robert Aitken, Basho, and Wallace Stevens, Undena Publications (1987).
  • Croucher, Paul. A History of Buddhism in Australia 1848-1988. N.S.W. University Press (1989): 41,83,90,118-123.
  • “The Gateless Barrier, An Interview with Robert Aitken Roshi.” The Vairadhatu Sun 13 /4 (April-May 1991): 7-8.
  • Hamill, Sam. A book review of “The Gateless Barrier.” Tricycle (Fall 1991): 89-90.
  • Carolan, Trevor. “Dangerous Work: The Life of a Western Zen Master.” Shambala Sun (January 1992): 40-47.
  • Houston, James D. “Way finders to the Future.” Discovery: The Hawaiian Odyssey Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press (1993).
  • A review of “Taking the Path of Zen.” Tricycle 3/ 1 (Fall 1993): 88.
  • A review of “Encouraging Words: Zen Buddhist Teachings for Western Studentsby Robert Aitken.” Tricycle 3/1 (Fall 1993): 91-92.
  • Moon, Susan, editor. “What is the Real Poison?: Seven Buddhist Activists Talk about the Nuclear Threat.” Turning Wheel (Spring 1994): 13.
  • A review of “The Ground We Share: Evervday practice, Buddhist and Christian” by Robert Aitken and David Steindl- Rast.” Tricycle 4/2 (Winter 1994): 103-105.
  • Grant, David. A review of “The Ground We Share: Everyday Practice, Buddhist and Christian.” Turning Wheel Fall 1995): 40.
  • Weisman, Sojun Met. “The Practice of Perfection- The Paramitas from a Zen Buddhist Perspective.” Turning Wheel (Winter 1995): 39.
  • Vadas, Melinda. “Sexual Addiction or Sexual Harassment.” Turning Wheel (Spring 1996): 20-22.
  • Hickey, Shannon. “Who is Hurting Whom?” Turning Wheel (Spring 1996): 22-23.
  • Keehan, Reverend Saigyo Terry. “Shunning and Sexual Misconduct.” (A letter to the editor.) Turning Wheel (Summer 1996): 4, 5-9,
  • Letters Section (responses to “Shunning and Intervention” article by Robert Aitken.) Turning Wheel (Summer 1996): 4, 5-9,
  • Senauke, Alan. “Knowing One’s Place.” Turning Wheel (Fall 1996): 40-41.
  • Whitney, Scott. “A Life in Zen.” Honolulu Magazine (December 1996): 34.
  • Moon, Susan. “Robert Aitken’s Retirement Ceremony.” Turning Wheel (Spring 1997): 35.
  • Tarrant, John. “Robert Aitken and a Few Other Things.” Blind Donkey 17/1 (September 1997): 1.
  • Sutherland, Joan. “Conversations with Robert Aitken.” Blind Donkey 17/1 (September 1997): 9-14.
  • Saijo, Albert. “Palolo Talk for Robert Aitken Roshi’s Retirement.” Blind Donkey 17/1 (September 1997): 21-25.
  • Senauke, Alan. “Using it Up: A Recollection of Robert Aitken Roshi.” Blind Donkey 17/1 (September 1997): 26.
  • Shoemaker, Jack. “A Writer of Bright Clear Thought.” Blind Donkey 17/1 (September 1997): 26.
  • Saijo, Albert. “To Robert Aitken Gyoun-ken Roshi on His Retirement Palolo Zen Center, Oʻahu Hawaiʻi Winter Solstice 19:96.” Blind Donkey 17/1 (September 1997): 27.
  • “Buddhism Without Walls- an Interview with Robert Aitken.” Tricycle (Spring 1999):44-50.
  • Ikeda-Nash, Mushim. “An Interview with Robert Aitken.” Turning Wheel (Winter 2001):18-21.
  • Dresser, Marianne. A review of “Zen Master Raven: Sayings and Doings of a Wise Bird.” Turning Wheel (Spring 2003): 40.

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