Carol J. Boushey  , PhD, MPH, RDN
Associate Research ProfessorUniversity of Hawai‘i Cancer Center – University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa
Work Email: email@example.comINTERNET
Dietary Patterns, Dietary Assessment using image based methods, Dietary based interventions
Recent Publications1. Schneeman BO, Ard JD, Boushey CJ, Bailey RL, Novotny R, Snetselaar LG, de Jesus JM, Stoody EE (2021). Perspective: Impact of the National Academy of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine Report on the Process for the 2020 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee. Adv Nutr. 12(4):1051-1057. doi:10.1093 / advances / nmab023. PMID:33734285 2. Whitton C, Healy JD, Dhaliwal SS, Shoneye C, Harray AJ, Mullan BA, McVeigh JA, Boushey CJ, Kerr DA. (2022) Demographic and psychosocial correlates of measurement error and reactivity bias in a four-day image-based mobile food record among adults with oversrweight and obesity. Br J Nutr. doi: 10.1017/S0007114522001532. PMID:35587722 3. Fialkowski MK, Kai J, Young C, Langfelder G, Ng-Osorio J, Shao Z, Zhu F, Kerr DA, Boushey CJ. (2022) An active image-based mobile food record is feasible for capturing eating occasions among infants ages 3-12 months old in Hawaii’i. Nutrients. Mar 3;14(5):1075. doi: 10.3390/nu14051075. PMID: 35268049.
- NCI U24CA268228 Boushey (PI) 01/12/2022 – 12/31/2026 Traditional and New Dietary Assessment Methods (TANDAM) for Personalized Nutrition with the All of Us Research Program Role: Principal Investigator
- NCI R01CA258179 Le Marchand/Boushey (MPIs) 09/22/2021 – 08/31/2026 Effects of Intermittent Energy Restriction on Intra-Abdominal Fat and the Gut Microbiome: A Randomized Trial Role: Multiple Principal Investigators
- NCI P30CA071789 Ramos (PI) 07/01/1997 – 06/30/2023 University of Hawaii Cancer Center CCSG This Cancer Center Support Grant provides infrastructure support to translate basic, translational and population-based discovery. Role: Director, Nutrition Support Shared Resource.
- NCI U01CA164973 Le Marchand/Wilkens/Haiman (MPIs) 09/01/2012 – 08/31/2022 Understanding Ethnic Differences in Cancer: The Multiethnic Cohort Study The Multiethnic Cohort Study is a powerful resource for continuing research efforts aimed at greater understanding of the environmental causes of cancer and other chronic diseases Role: Co-Investigator.
Adrian Franke  , PhD
Director, Analytical Biochemistry Shared Resource and Professor, Natural Products and Experimental Therapeutics ProgramUniversity of Hawai‘i Cancer Center- University of Hawaii at Manoa
Work Phone: 808.586.3008work Work Email: firstname.lastname@example.orgINTERNET
Development of biomarkers reflecting exposure to vegetarian foods, pharmacokinetics of chemopreventive micronutrients, development of state-of-the-art analytical techniques to determine metabolites in biological matrices.
- Franke AA, Custer LJ, Morrison CM, Li X, Lai JF. (2013).Simultaneous analysis of circulating 25-hydroxy-vitamin D3, 25-hydroxy-vitamin D2, retinol, tocopherols, carotenoids, and oxidized and reduced coenzyme Q10 by HPLC with photo diode-array detection using C18 and C30 columns alone or in combination.J Chromatogr, 1301, 1-9 A.
- Franke AA, Lai JF, Morrison CM, Pagano I, Li X, Halm BM, Soon Rand Custer LJ. (2013).Coenzyme Q10, carotenoid, tocopherol, and retinol levels in cord plasma from multiethnic subjects in Hawaii. Free Radic Res, 47(9), 757-768.
- U54 NCI. Identification of biomarkers in saliva for betel nut consumption. 07/01/13 – 06/30/14
- PO1 NIH/NCI. Project 1:nutritional, biochemical, and hormonal predictors. Obesity, body fat distribution and cancer risk in the multiethnic cohort. 04/01/012-03/31/17
- R01 NIH/NCI. Urinary Isoflavonoids and Stroke Risk in Chinese Women. 02/01/11-01-31/14
Loic Le Marchand  , MD, PhD
Cancer Epidemiology ProgramUniversity of Hawai‘i Cancer Center – University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa
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The interactions between genetic and lifestyle factors responsible for the cancer risk differences that exist among ethnic/racial groups in Hawaii and California, with the goal of advancing our understanding of the causes, mechanisms and prevention of cancer.
- Wang H…Le Marchand L. (2014). Trans-ethnic genome-wide association study of colorectal cancer identifies a new susceptibility locus in VTI1A. Nat Commun. 2014 Aug 8;5:4613. doi: 10.1038/ncomms5613. This is a modified citation.
- Park SL…Le Marchand L. (2014). Pleiotropic Associations of Risk Variants Identified for Other Cancers With Lung Cancer Risk: The PAGE and TRICL Consortia. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2014 Apr 1;106(4):dju061. doi: 10.1093/jnci/dju061. Epub 2014 Mar 28. This is a modified citation.
- Cheng I…Le Marchand* L. (2013). Pleiotropic effects of genetic risk variants for other cancers on colorectal cancer risk: PAGE, GECCO and CCFR consortia. Gut. 2013 Aug 9. doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2013-305189. [Epub ahead of print] *Co-senior author. This is a modified citation.
- L. Le Marchand, C. Henderson, L. Wilkens, MPIs, UM1 CA164973, National Cancer Institute, "Understanding Ethnic Differences in Cancer: The Multiethnic Cohort Study" 2012–2017.
- L. Le Marchand, PI. P01 CA169530, National Cancer Institute, "Obesity, Body Fat Distribution and Cancer Risk in the Multiethnic Cohort" 2012–2017.
- L. Le Marchand, PI of subcontract, (Haile/Lindor/Jenkins, MPIs), U01 CA167551, National Cancer Institute, "The Colon Cancer Family Registry Cohort" 2012–2016.
- C. Haiman/L. Le Marchand, MPIs, National Human Genome Research Institute, "Epidemiology of Putative Causal Variants in the Multiethnic Cohort" 2013-2017.
Unhee Lim  , PhD, MS
Full Member, Population Sciences in the Pacific Program (Cancer Epidemiology)University of Hawaiʻi Cancer Center
Work Email: firstname.lastname@example.orgINTERNET
Dr. Lim's research involves the epidemiologic investigation of nutrition and lifestyle risk factors and related racial/ethnic heterogeneity in cancer etiology. In particular, she is interested in understanding the carcinogenic effects of obesity and body fat distribution and how they vary across racial/ethnic populations. Obesity is becoming the leading risk factor for cancer, contributing to the development of over a dozen types of cancer. Combined disease burden of obesity or excess body fatness is estimated to be responsible for $150 billion in annual medical care and about 20% of all deaths in the U.S. Additionally, the detrimental metabolic effects of excess body fat is known to be greater when it is stored in the abdominal and intra-abdominal regions than in peripheral and sub-cutaneous regions. In the Multiethnic Cohort Study, Dr. Lim and colleagues have observed that Asian Americans, along with Latinos and Native Hawaiians, have a greater propensity to accumulate intra-abdominal fat in the viscera, liver, and pancreas, compared to whites or African Americans. In collaboration with multidisciplinary researchers, Dr. Lim is investigating additional disease burden from the high-risk fat depots, biomarkers for understanding their metabolic effects, and lifestyle interventions to improve the adiposity and metabolic profiles.
- Lim U, Monroe KR, Buchthal S, Fan B, Cheng I, Kristal BS, Lampe JW, Hullar MA, Franke AA, Stram DO, Wilkens LR, Shepherd J, Ernst T, Le Marchand L. (2019). Propensity for intra-abdominal and hepatic adiposity varies among ethnic groups. Gastroenterology; 156:966-975. PMC6409195.
- Song MA, Ernst T, Tiirikainen M, Tost J, Wilkens LR, Chang L, Kolonel LN, Le Marchand L, Lim U. (2018). Methylation of imprinted IGF2 regions is associated with total, visceral and hepatic adiposity in postmenopausal women. Epigenetics; 13:858-865. PMC6224210.
- Setiawan VW, Lim U, Lipworth L, Lu SC, Shepherd J, Ernst T, Wilkens LR, Henderson BE, Le Marchand L. (2016). Sex and racial/ethnic differences in the association of obesity with risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 14:309-16. PMC4718778.
- Lim U, Kocarnik JM, Bush WS, Matise TC, Caberto C, Park SL, Carlson CS, Deelman E, Duggan D, Fesinmeyer M, Haiman CA, Henderson BE, Hindorff LA, Kolonel LN, Peters U, Stram DO, Tiirikainen M, Wilkens LR, Wu C, Kooperberg C, Le Marchand L. (2014). Pleiotropy of cancer susceptibility variants on the risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: the PAGE Consortium. PLoS ONE, 9(3):e89791. PMC3943855.
Recent GrantsU. Lim, Contact PI; Lampe, MPIs NCI R01 CA204368 "TMAO, the Gut Microbiome, and Colorectal Cancer Risk in the Multiethnic Cohort" 05/01/2016-04/30/2020
Gertraud Maskarinec  , MD PhD
Professor, Cancer Epidemiology Program and Program Director, Post-Doctoral Training ProgramUniversity of Hawai‘i Cancer Center – University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa
Home Phone: 808.586.3078home
Preventive medicine and nutritional epidemiology, etiology of breast cancer, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL), and type 2 diabetes.
- Maskarinec G, Harmon BE, Melissa AL, Ollberding, NJ, Kolonel LN, Henderson BE, Le Marchand L, Wilkens LR. (2015). Excess Body Weight and Colorectal Cancer Survival: The Multiethnic Cohort. Cancer Causes and Control 26: 1709-18. Sep 10. [Epub ahead of print]. PMCID: 4628582.
- Leo QJN, Ollberding NJ, Wilkens LR, Kolonel LN, Henderson BE, Le Marchand L, Maskarinec G (2015). Nutritional Factors and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Survival in an Ethnically Diverse Population: The Multiethnic Cohort Study. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, September 2, 2015; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2015.139. PMCID: 4562319.
- Morimoto Y, Maskarinec G, Park SY, Ettienne R, Matsuno RK, Long C, Steffen AD, Henderson BE, Kolonel LN, Le Marchand L, Wilkens LR. (2014). Dietary isoflavone intake is not associated with breast cancer risk in the Multiethnic Cohort. British Journal of Nutrition 112:976-83; 23 July. [Epub ahead of print]. PMCID: 4237401.
- G. Maskarinec, Program Director; J. Hedges, (PI: J. Hedges), P30 CA071789-14S1, University of Hawaii Cancer Center CCSG CURE Supplement. 07/2013 - 06/2017.
- G. Maskarinec, Co-Investigator, (PIs: L. Le Marchand/U. Lim), P01 CA168530, "Obesity, Body Fat Distribution, and Cancer Risk in the Multiethnic Cohort" 09/01/12 - 08/31/17.
- G. Maskarinec, Multiple PI of Education Core, U54 CA143727, "University of Guam/University of Hawaii Cancer Center Partnership Education Core" 09/01/15 – 08/31/20.
John A Shepherd  , PhD
Researcher R5Population Sciences in the Pacific Program (Cancer Epidemiology), University of Hawai‘i Cancer Center
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Dr. Shepherd has a 30-year background in quantitative imaging. Most of his academic research involves developing novel biomarkers for a variety of imaging modalities including dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) scan for bone density and body composition, mammography for breast density and tissue textural measures as risk factors for breast cancer, and 3-D optical whole body scanning for quantifying body shape as a risk factor for metabolic diseases. Using these modalities, he uses advanced statistical methods to extract more information from images. The methods include principal component analysis, shape and appearance modeling, deep learning, and artificial intelligence approaches. While at UCSF he accumulated over 4 million mammograms for the study of breast cancer risk from imaging and was one of the first to show that volumetric breast density measures are a stronger risk predictor than areal density measures. His active research questions include the following: • Can deep learning models for reading mammograms reduce recall rates and unnecessary biopsies for women of the Pacific region? • What is the best way to describe frailty and function using quantitative composition measures? • Can 3-D optical scans of the whole body accurately and precisely quantify body composition and other health risk factors, and improve compliance of nutrition and exercise interventions? He also holds four patents in quantitative imaging. His group has been expert consultants for the NHANES study DXA component for 20 years. He has published over 150 peer-reviewed papers, is a Fulbright Scholar, and a past president of the International Society for Clinical Densitometry.
Recent PublicationsWong, MC., Ng, BK, Kennedy, SF, Hwaung, P, Liu, EY, Kelly, NN, Pagano, IS, Garber, AK, Chow, DC, Heymsfield, SB, Shepherd, JA. (2019). Children and Adolescents’ Anthropometrics Body Composition from 3‐D Optical Surface Scans. Obesity, 27: 1738-1749. doi:10.1002/oby.22637.
- Ng BK, Sommer MJ, Wong MC, Pagano I, Nie Y, Fan B, Kennedy S, Bourgeois B, Kelly N, Liu YE, Hwaung P, Garber AK, Chow D, Vaisse C, Curless B, Heymsfield SB, Shepherd JA. (2019). Detailed 3-dimensional body shape features predict body composition, blood metabolites, and functional strength: the Shape Up! studies. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition; Dec 1;110(6):1316-1326. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz218. PubMed PMID: 31553429; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6885475.
- Drukker K, Giger ML, Joe BN, Kerlikowske K, Greenwood H, Drukteinis JS, Niell B, Fan B, Malkov S, Avila J, Kazemi L, Shepherd J. (2019). Combined Benefit of Quantitative Three-Compartment Breast Image Analysis and Mammography Radiomics in the Classification of Breast Masses in a Clinical Data Set. Radiology; Mar;290(3):621-628. doi: 10.1148/radiol.2018180608. Epub 2018 Dec 11. PubMed PMID: 30526359; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6394732.
- Ng BK, Liu YE, Wang W, Kelly TL, Wilson KE, Schoeller DA, Heymsfield SB, Shepherd JA. (2018). Validation of rapid 4-component body composition assessment with the use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and bioelectrical impedance analysis. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition; Oct 1;108(4):708-715. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy158. PubMed PMID: 30099474.
- Shepherd JA, Sommer MJ, Fan B, Powers C, Stranix-Chibanda L, Zadzilka A, Basar M, George K, Mukwasi-Kahari C, Siberry G. Advanced Analysis Techniques Improve Infant Bone and Body Composition Measures by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry. J Pediatr. 2017 Feb;181:248-253.e3. PMCID: PMC5274603.
- Shepherd JA, Ng BK, Sommer MJ, Heymsfield SB. Body composition by DXA. Bone. 2017 Nov;104:101–105. PMCID: PMC5659281.
- Shepherd JA, Ng BK, Fan B, Schwartz AV, Cawthon P, Cummings SR, Kritchevsky S, Nevitt M, Santanasto A, Cootes TF. Modeling the shape and composition of the human body using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry images. PLoS One. 2017;12(4):e0175857. PMCID: PMC5397033.
- Shepherd JA, Fan B, Lu Y, Wu XP, Wacker WK, Ergun DL, Levine MA. A multinational study to develop universal standardization of whole-body bone density and composition using GE Healthcare Lunar and Hologic DXA systems. J Bone Miner Res. 2012 Oct;27(10):2208–2216. PMID: 22623101.
- "DXA Scan Analysist and Quality Control Review for NHANES 2018-2022"
- Shepherd, PI - Funded through NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) 2018 – 2022
- “Shape up! Kids” J.A. Shepherd and Steven Heymsfield, Co- PIs Funded by the NIH/NIDDK 01/20/2017 – 12/31/2021
- “Optical Body Composition and Health Assessment” J.A. Shepherd and Steven Heymsfield, Co- PIs - Funded by the NIH/NIDDK 05/15/2016 – 04/30/2021
- "Deep Learning and Total Body DXA Scans (The TBDXA.I. Project)"
- Shepherd and Steve Cummings, Co-PIs - Funded by Sutter Health/California Medical Center Research Institute 2019 – 2020
- "DXA Body Composition and Bone Mineral Density Review and Analyses for HANDLS"
- Shepherd, Project Investigator - Funded through HANDLS (Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span) 2019 – 2020
- "Space-Feasible Body Composition and Body Shape Analysis for Long Duration Missions (Astro3DO)"
- Shepherd and Peter Sadowski, Co-PIs - Funded by TRISH (Translational Research Institute for Space Health) 2019 – 2020
- "IMPAACT 2009 & 2010"
- Shepherd, Project Investigator; Sharon Nachman, PI - Funded through the LOC-IMPAACT Leadership Group 2006 – 2020
Current Graduate StudentsJonathan Bennett, PhD in Nutrition at the University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa (Chair) Thesis: Assessment of Hydration via Five Compartment Body Composition Methods 2019 – Present Dustin Valdez, PhD in Nutrition at the University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa (Chair) Thesis: Evaluating Portable Breast Cancer Screening Technology for Women in the Pacific 2019 – Present Michael Wong, PhD in Nutrition at the University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa (Chair) Thesis: Using 3D Optical Body Shape to Determine Various Health Indices 2018 – Present Lambert Leong, PhD in Molecular Biosciences and Bioengineering at the University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa (Chair) Thesis: Using machine learning and deep learning to reduce the burden of cancer in Hawai‘i and the Pacific 2019 – Present Devon Cataldi, PhD in Kinesiology at the University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa (Chair) Thesis: 4-Component Body Composition Models with Varying Body Fatness and Hydration: The Dakine Study 2019 – Present Past Graduate Students Michael Omori, MS in Information and Computer Sciences at the University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa (Mentor) Thesis: The Development of a Body Composition Imaging System Using 3D Depth Sensors Utilizing Machine Learning for Testing in Microgravity Simulations 2019 – 2020 Current Position: Software Engineer, Oceanit Rosa Consuelo Villegas Valle, PhD in Nutrition at the University of Sonora, Mexico (Chair) Thesis: Tejido Adiposo Visceral (TAV) en Adultos Hispanos y su Relación con Alteraciones Cardiometabólicas 2013 – 2020 Current Position: Assistant Professor, University of Sonora Shane Spencer, MS in Electrical Engineering at the University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa (Chair) Thesis: Applications of Deep Learning Techniques in the Systematic Melanoma Assessment and Risk Triaging (SMART) Pilot Study 2018 – 2020 Current Position: Data Scientist/Software Engineer, DB Engineering, Inc. Caylin Van Hook, PhD in Bioengineering at UC Berkeley/UC San Francisco (Rotation Advisor/Mentor) 2017 – 2017 Current Position: Graduate Student Michaela Piel, MS in Biomedical Imaging at UC San Francisco (Advisor/Mentor) Thesis: Prediction of DXA whole body scan data from 3D optical 2017 – 2017 Current Position: PET/CT TEchnologist, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease (NIAID) Dylan Lowe, PhD in Biological and Biomedical Sciences at UC San Francisco (Advisor/Mentor) Thesis: Energy Intake From Expellant 2016 – 2017 Current Position: Graduate Student; Clinical Consultant, Key Eats Roman Camarda, PhD in Biomedical Sciences, UC San Francisco (Advisor/Mentor) Thesis: Energy Intake From Expellant 2016 – 2017 Current Position: Graduate Student, Goga Lab Cynthia Kahari, PhD in Radiography at the University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe (Research Mentor) 2016 – Present Current Position: PhD Student Lisa Kotowski, MS in Physics at San Francisco State University (Chair) 2014 – 2018 Current Position: Founder, Body Composition Systems, LLC Benjamin Hinton, PhD in Bioengineering at UC Berkeley/UC San Francisco (Rotation Advisor – 2014, Dissertation Mentor – 2015-2018, Chair) 2014 – 2018 Current Position: Senior Algorithm Engineer, Abbott Jesus Avila, PhD in Bioengineering at UC Berkeley/UC San Francisco (Rotation Advisor – 2014, Dissertation Mentor – 2015-2018, Chair) 2014 – 2018 Current Position: Data & Computer Vision Engineer, Genentech Bennett Ng, PhD in Bioengineering at UC Berkeley/UC San Francisco (Rotation Advisor – 2014, Dissertation Mentor – 2014-2018, Chair) 2014 – 2018 Current Position: Research Scientist, Intel Fredrik Strand, PhD in Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics at the Karolinska Institute, Stockholm Sweden (Mentor) 2013 – 2018 Current Position: Radiologist, Karolinska Hospital Johan Kalvesten, PhD in the Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linkoping University, Linkoping Sweden (External Opponent/Committee Member) 2015 – 2015 Current Position: Graduate Student Ronald Dendere, PhD in Bioengineering, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa (External Referee) 2014 – 2014 Current Position: Graduate Student Admire Zanga, MS at the College of Health Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, Harare Zimbabwe (External MS Thesis Advisor) 2013 – 2013 Current Position: Graduate Student Bowen Xie, BS in Bioengineering at UC Berkeley (Advisor/Mentor) 2013 – 2013 Current Position: Surgery Resident at UPMC Paul Keselman, PhD in Bioengineering at UC Berkeley/UC San Francisco (Rotation Advisor/Mentor) 2011 – 2011 Current Position: Senior Scientist, Hoglund Brain Imaging Center – KUMC Paul Johnson, PhD in Bioengineering at UC Berkeley/UC San Francisco (Rotation Advisor/Mentor) 2011 – 2011 Current Position: Senior Display Color & Vision Engineer, Apple Cynthia Mukwasi, MS at the College of Health Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe (External MS Thesis Advisor) 2010 – 2015 Current Position: Graduate Student Joseph Wilson, PhD in Bioenginering at UC Berkeley/UC San Francisco (Primary Advisor/Mentor) 2010 – 2015 Current Position: Principal Consultant, American Institutes for Research
Lynne Wilkens  , DrPH, MS
Co-Director, Biostat and Informatics Shared ResourceUniversity of Hawai‘i Cancer Center- University of Hawaii at Manoa
Work Email: firstname.lastname@example.orgINTERNET
Methodological research that extends statistical techniques of relevance to our research, techniques for studying disease associations when the independent variables are measured with error and ethical/racial classification.
- Wang H, Schmit SL, Haiman CA, Keku TO, Kato I, Palmer JR, van den Berg D, Wilkens LR, Burnett T, Conti DV, Schumacher FR, Signorello LB, Blot WJ, Zanetti KA, Harris C, Pande M, Berndt SI, Newcomb PA, West DW, Haile R, Stram DO, Figueiredo JC, Le Marchand L. Hispanic Colorectal Cancer Study. Novel colon cancer susceptibility variants identified from a genome-wide association study in African Americans. Int J Cancer. 2017 Mar 13. doi: 10.1002/ijc.30687. [Epub ahead of print]
- Harmon BE, Wirth MD, Boushey CJ, Wilkens LR, Draluck E, Shivappa N, Steck SE, Hofseth L, Haiman CA, Le Marchand L, Hébert JR. The Dietary Inflammatory Index Is Associated with Colorectal Cancer Risk in the Multiethnic Cohort. J Nutr. 2017 Mar;147(3):430-438. doi: 10.3945/jn.116.242529.
- Conroy SM, Clarke C, Yang J, Shariff-Marco S, Shvetsov YB, Park SY, Albright CL, Hertz A, Monroe KR, Kolonel LN, Le Marchand L, Wilkens LR, Gomez SL, Cheng I. Contextual impact of neighborhood obesogenic factors on postmenopausal breast cancer: The Multiethnic Cohort. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2017 Jan 31. pii: cebp.0941.2016. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-16-0941. [Epub ahead of print]