OLD Rat Lungworm


If you have any questions or concerns about rat lungworm infection, please contact the Director of the Hawaii Department of Health on Oahu: Phone: (808) 586-4410.

UH-CTAHR Extension Publications

University of Hawaii at Hilo, College of Pharmacy

News and Video Reports

  • The Discovery Channel aired an episode of Monsters Inside of Me, which featured Rat Lungworm.   
    Screenshot from Monsters Inside of Me


  • KITV news presentation on Rat Lungworm

Screenshot from KITV news

Public Health Announcement

Scientific Research Articles and Other Useful Extension Publications

  • Alicata, 1964. Parasitic infections of man and animals in Hawaii. Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station, Technical Bulletin 61. http://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/oc/freepubs/pdf/TB-61_extract.pdf.
  • Asato R, Taira K, Nakamura M, Kudaka J, Itokazu K, Kawanaka M. Changing epidemiology of angiostrongyliasis cantonensis in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. Jpn J Infect Dis 2004; 57:184-186.
  • Cowie RH. Catalog and bibliography of the nonindigenous nonmarine snails and slugs of the Hawaiian Islands. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 1997;50:1-66.
  • Crowe, K. et al. 2006. Best ways to wash fruits and vegetables.  University of Maine Cooperative Extension Bulletin 4336. http://extension.umaine.edu/publications/4336e/.  Accessed February 25, 2009.
  • Hata, Trent Y., A. H. Hara, and B. K.-S. Hu.  1997.  Molluscicides and mechanical barriers against slugs, Vaginula plebeia Fischer and Veronicella cubensis (Pfeiffer) (Stylommatophora: Veronicellidae) Crop Protection 16(6):  501-506.  [pdf]
  • Hochberg, N.S., S.Y. Park, B.G. Blackburn, J.J. Sejvar, K. Gaynor, H. Chung, K. Leniek, B.L. Herwaldt, and P.V. Effler. 2007. Distribution of eosinophilic meningitis cases attributed to Angiostrongylus cantonensis, Hawaii. Emerging Infectious Diseases 13(11): 1675–1680. [pdf]
  • Hollingsworth RG, Cowie RH. Apple snails as disease vectors, pp. 121-132. In R. C. Joshi & L. S. Sebastian, Eds. Global Advances in Ecology and Management of Golden Apple Snails. Nueva Ecija: Philippine Rice Research Institute. 2006.
  • Hollingsworth, R.G., R. Kaneta, J.J. Sullivan, H.S. Bishop, Y. Qvarnstrom, A.J. da Silva, and D.G. Robinson. 2007. Distribution of Parmarion cf. martensi (Pulmonata: Helicarionidae), a new semi-slug pest on Hawaii islands and its potential as a vector for human angiostrongyliasis. Pacific Science 61(4): 457–467. [pdf]
  • Hollyer, J., L. Castro, A. Louie, L. Nakamura-Tengan, and V. Troegner. 2009. Pest management systems to control rodents in and around packing sheds. http://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/oc/freepubs/pdf/FST-34.pdf.
  • Kliks MM, Palumbo NE. Eosinophilic meningitis beyond the Pacific basin: the global dispersal of a peridomestic zoonosis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the nematode lungworm of rats. Soc Sci and Med 1992;34:199-212.
  • Lindo, J.F., C. Waugh, J. Hall, C. Cunningham-Myrie, D. Ahsley, M.L. Eberhard, J.J. Sullivan, H.S. Bishop, D.G. Robinson, T. Holtz, and R.D. Robinson. 2002. Enzootic Angiostrongylus cantonensis in rats and snails after an outbreak of human ensinophilic meningitis, Jamaica. Emerging Infectious Diseases 8(3).
  • Martin-Alonso A, Foronda P, Quispe-Ricalde MA, Feliu C, Valladares B. Seroprevalence of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Wild Rodents from the Canary Islands. PLoS ONE 2011;6(11): e27747. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0027747
  • Qvarnstrom, Y., J.J. Sullivan, H.S. Bishop, R. Hollingsworth, and A.J. da Silva. 2007. PCR-based detection of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in tissue and mucus secretions from molluscan hosts. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 73(5): 1415–1419.
  • Schuder, I., G. Port, and J. Bennison.  2003.  Barriers, repellents and antifeedants for slug and snail control.  Crop Protection 22:  1033–1038. [pdf]
  • Tummons, P. 2011. Rat Lungworm Disease: Has Arrival Of a New-to-Hawaii Snail Made It Worse? Environment Hawaii. 22(6): 11-12.
  • Tsai, H-C., Y.-C. Liu, C.M. Kunin, S.S.-J. Lee, Y.-S. Chen, H.-H. Lin, T.-H. Tsai, W.-R. Lin, C-K. Huang, M.-Y. Yen, and C.-M. Yen.  2001.  Eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus Cantonensis: Report of 17 cases.  American Journal of Medicine 111:  109-114.  [pdf]
  • Wallace GD, Rosen L. Studies on eosinophilic meningitis V. Molluscan hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis on Pacific Islands. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1969;18:206-216.
  • Wang, Q.-P., D. Lai, X.-Q. Zhu, X.-G. Chen, and Z.-R. Lun. 2008. Human angiostrongyliasis. Lancet Infectious Diseases 2008(8): 621–630. [pdf] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18922484 . Accessed February 25, 2009.
  • Wang QP, Wu ZD, Wei RL, Owen ZR, Lun ZR. Human Angiostrongylus cantononsis: an update. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2011;DOI 10.1007/s10096-0111328-5.
  • Wu GH. Angiostrongylus cantonensis. In: Tang JQ ed Nature-borne diseases Science Press Beijing p 1182. 2006.