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Activity: Mapping the Globe

NGSS Science and Engineering Practices:

NGSS Crosscutting Concepts:

NGSS Disciplinary Core Ideas:

Materials

  • Four to five sheets of blank paper
  • Template (from Locating Points on a Globe Activity)
  • Pencil
  • Drawing compass with pencil 
  • Orange globe (from Locating Points on a Globe Activity)
  • Scissors 
  • Tape 
  • Thick paper
  • Ruler (or straight edge)
  • Knife (plastic)
  • Crayons or colored pencils
 
Procedure

A. Make two orthographic-projection maps of your orange globe (see Fig. 1.23 for an example)

<p><strong>Fig. 1.23.</strong> Orthographic-projection maps (<strong>A</strong>) Equatorial view (<strong>B</strong>) North polar view</p><br />


  1. Make two circles with diameters the same as that of the orange globe. On a sheet of blank paper, trace the inner circle from the template you made in the Locating Points on a Globe Activity. If you do not have a template, use a drawing compass and a pencil to make the circles.
  2. In one circle, make an orthographic-projection map that shows what your orange globe looks like when is viewed directly at the equator. (This view is called an equatorial view.) Fig. 1.23 A shows an example.
    1. Position your orange globe so that you draw the prime meridian in the center of your map. Draw exactly what you see; do not draw any lines that are hidden.
    2. Draw the latitude and longitude lines, land masses, and capitals. 
    3. Color the land the same color(s) as on your orange globe.
  3. In the other circle, make an orthographic-projection map that shows the orange globe as viewed when looking directly down on either the north (or the south) pole. An example is shown in Fig. 1.23 B from the north pole—this is called a north polar view.
    1. Position your orange globe so you draw the north (or south) pole in the center of your map. Draw exactly what you see, do not draw any lines that are hidden.
    2. Draw the latitude and longitude lines, landmasses, and capitals. 
  4. Locate and label the following on both orthographic-projection maps:
    1. prime meridian (0˚)
    2. equator (0˚)
    3. 180˚ meridian
    4. north and south poles
    5. meridians of longitude in 30˚ intervals
    6. parallels of latitude in 30˚ intervals
    7. northern and southern hemispheres
    8. eastern and western hemispheres
  5. Title your maps as “Orthographic-projection map equatorial view” and “Orthographic-projection map polar view.”
     

B. Make a cylindrical-projection map of your orange globe (see Fig. 1.24 for an example)


<p><strong>Fig. 1.24.</strong> Example of a cylindrical-projection map</p><br />
<p><strong>Fig. 1.25</strong>. (<strong>A</strong>) Roll a sheet of blank paper around the orange globe, the paper should touch the orange at the orange&rsquo;s equator. (<strong>B</strong>) Cut off excess paper after determining the width of paper for a cylindrical-projection map.</p><br />


  1. Roll a sheet of blank paper around the equator of the orange globe so that it makes a tight-fitting cylinder (Fig. 1.25 A). If your orange is large, you may need to tape two sheets of paper together.
    1. Make a straight-line cut to remove the excess paper that is not part of the cylinder (Fig. 1.25 B).
    2. Unroll the cylinder. The remaining paper should now be as wide as the circumference of the globe.
       
  2. Fold the paper in half lengthwise. Fold it in half again in the same direction. Open it. Draw pencil lines down the fold lines as in Fig. 1.26 A.

<p><strong>Fig. 1.26.</strong> (<strong>A</strong>) Draw pencil lines down the fold lines and label the 0˚, 90˚, and 180˚ east and west longitude lines.</p><br />
<p><strong>Fig. 1.26.</strong> (<strong>B</strong>) Measure and label and 30˚, 60˚, 120˚, and 150˚ east and west longitude lines.</p><br />
<p><strong>Fig. 1.26.</strong> (<strong>C</strong>) Draw a line along the center line fold and label the equator.</p><br />


  1. Label the center line as the prime meridian (0˚ longitude). The fold on the right is 90˚E; the fold on the left is 90˚W.
  2. Measure the distance between the 0˚ line and the 90˚W line. Divide this distance by three. Use this measurement to mark the 30˚W and 60˚W longitude lines. Draw light pencil lines down the marks. Continue to label the meridians of longitude in 30˚ intervals east and west as in Fig. 1.26 B.
  3. Turn your paper and fold the paper in half the other way.
  4. Open it and draw a line along the fold line. Label this the equator (0˚ latitude). Your paper should now look like Fig. 1.26 C.
    1. Use the orthographic map (equatorial view) you drew of your globe in Procedure A. Referring to Fig. 1.27, line up the equator of the orthographic map with the equator on your paper. The two equators must form a straight line. Use tape to secure the two pieces of paper together.
      1. Locate the center of your orthographic map (0˚, 0˚). This is the point where the equator and the prime meridian intersect.
      2. Using a ruler, draw a straight line connecting the center of your orthographic map (0˚, 0˚) to the outer edge of the 60˚ north latitude line (60˚N). This is shown in blue in Fig. 1.27.
      3. Extend the line to the edge of your cylindrical-projection map paper and write 60˚ north at the point it connects. This is shown in red in Fig. 1.27. Clearly mark this point. You have just projected 60˚ north latitude onto the cylindrical-projection map.
      4. Following the same steps as above, project 30˚N, 30˚S, and 60˚S onto the paper. Mark and label each projected latitude point.
      5. Extend each line from the projected latitude point across the paper parallel to the equator. This is shown in green in Fig. 1.27 for the 60˚N line.

<p><strong>Fig. 1.27.</strong> Marking parallels of latitude on a cylindrical-projection map.</p><br />


  1. On the orange globe, locate the points where the boundary line(s) of the continent(s) or island(s) cut across the equator, prime meridian, or other lines of latitude and longitude. Mark these points on the cylindrical-projection map. Use the points you listed in the Locating Points on a Globe Activity, Question 2.
  2. Connect the boundary points of the continent(s) and island(s).
  3. Color the land the same color(s) as on the orange globe.
  4. Label the cylindrical-projection map. Use the list of labels in Procedure A, number four.
  5. Title your map “Cylindrical-projection map.”

C. Make an equal-area map of your orange globe.

  1. Draw a horizontal line across a sheet of blank paper to represent the equator.
  2. With a plastic knife, cut the orange peel into segments along the meridians. All cuts must stop just before the equator if the peel is to hold together. Carefully peel skin segments from the orange.
    1. Open the skin segments and tape them flat onto the paper (Fig. 1.28). Make further cuts along the meridian lines if the segments won't lie flat.

<p><strong>Fig. 1.28.</strong> An equal-area map made from orange peel segments</p><br />


  1. Mark and label the locations of the parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude. Fig. 1.28 shows the parallels of latitude labeled.
  2. Finish your map in one of two ways:
    1. Label your equal-area map using the list of labels in Procedure A, number four. 
    2. Trace the outline of the segments onto the paper and mark the edges of the landmasses at the map edges before carefully removing the peel. Draw the lines of latitude and longitude on your map and your continent(s) and island(s). Color your landmasses the same colors as on your globe and label using the list in Procedure 1e. 
  3. Title your map “Equal area map.”

 

Activity Questions: 
  1. Compare the areas of your continent(s) as drawn on an orthographic-projection map, on a cylindrical-projection map, and on an equal-area map. How are they different? How are they similar?
  2. What are the problems that must be overcome in making a cylindrical-projection map of features on the globe? How does your drawing of the landmasses on your orange globe compare with their representation on the cylindrical projection?
  3. What are the problems that must be overcome in making an equal-area map of the globe?
  4. Compare the advantages and disadvantages of globes, orthographic-projection maps, cylindrical-projection maps, and equal-area maps on the following points:
    1. seeing the total surface area of the earth,
    2. measuring distances between places,
    3. determining surface areas,
    4. determining directions,
    5. determining locations,
    6. ease of reading, and
    7. distortion of landmasses and bodies of water.
  5. When would you use each type of map? Why?
 

 

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Exploring Our Fluid Earth, a product of the Curriculum Research & Development Group (CRDG), College of Education. University of Hawaii, 2011. This document may be freely reproduced and distributed for non-profit educational purposes.