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2020 and In Press

Pauker, K., Tai, C., & Ansari, S. (2020). Contextualizing the development of social essentialism. In M. Rhodes (Ed.) Advances in Child Development and Behavior, 59.

Meyers, C. K., Aumer, K., Schoniwitz, A., Janicki, C., Pauker, K., Chang, E. C., Gaither, S. E., & Williams, A. (2020). Experiences with microaggressions and discrimination in racially diverse and homogeneous contexts. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 26, 250-259.


Brey, E. L., & Pauker, K., (2019). Teachers’ nonverbal behaviors influence children’s stereotypic beliefs. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 188. [PDF]

Garay, M., Meyers, C. K., Remedios, J., & Pauker, K. (2019). Looking like vs. acting like your race: Social activism shapes perceptions of multiracial individuals. Self and Identity. Advance online publication:

Pauker, K., Brey, E. L., Lamer, S. A., & Weisbuch, M. (2019). Cultural snapshots: A method to capture social contexts in development of prejudice and stereotyping. In Benson, J. (Ed.) Advances in Child Development and Behavior, 56(3), 141-181. [PDF]

Gaither, S. E., Chen, J. M., Pauker, K., & Sommers, S. R. (2019). At face value: Psychological outcomes differ for real vs. computer-generated multiracial faces. Journal of Social Psychology, 159, 592-610. [PDF]


Chen, J. M., Pauker, K., Gaither, S. E., Hamilton, D. L., & Sherman, J. W. (2018). Black + White = Not White: A minority bias in categorizations of Black-White multiracials. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 78, 43-54. [PDF]

Pauker, K., Carpinella, C. M., Lick, D. J., Sanchez, D. T., & Johnson, K. L. (2018). Malleability in biracial categorizations: The impact of geographic context and targets’ racial heritage. Social Cognition, 36, 461-480.* [PDF]

Pauker, K., Meyers, C. K., Sanchez, D. T., Gaither, S. E., & Young, D. M. (2018). A review of multiracial malleability: Identity, categorization, and shifting racial attitudes. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 12, e12392.* [PDF]

Pauker, K., Carpinella, C., Meyers, C., Young, D., & Sanchez, D. (2018). The role of diversity exposure in Whites’ reduction in race essentialism over time. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 9, 944-952.* [PDF]

Williams, A., Kajiwara, K., Soon, R., Salcedo, J., Tschann, M., Elia, J., Pauker, K., & Kaneshiro, B. (2018). Recommendations for contraception: Examining the role of patients’ age and race. Hawaii Journal of Medicine and Public Health, 77, 7-13. [PDF]


Weisbuch, M., Pauker, K., Adams, R. B., Jr., & Lamer, S. (2017). Race, power, and reflexive gaze following. Social Cognition, 35, 619-638. [PDF]

Weisbuch, M., Lamer, S. A., Treinen, E., & Pauker, K. (2017). Cultural snapshots: Theory and method. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 11, e12334. [PDF]

McKeown, S., Williams, A., & Pauker, K. (2017). Stories that move them: Changing children’s behavior toward diverse peers. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 27, 381-387. [PDF]

Pauker, K., Williams, A., & Steele, J. R. (2017). The development of racial categorization in childhood. In. A. Rutland, D. Nesdale, & C. S. Brown (Eds.), The Wiley-Black Handbook of Group Processes in Children and Adolescents. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd. [PDF]


Pauker, K., Xu, Y., Williams, A., & Biddle, A. M. (2016). Race essentialism and contextual differences in children’s racial stereotyping. Child Development, 87, 1409-1422. [PDF]

Gaither, S. E., Pauker, K., Slepian, M. L., & Sommers, S. R. (2016). Social belonging motivates categorization of racially-ambiguous faces. Social Cognition, 34, 97-118. [PDF]

Freeman, J. B., Pauker, K., & Sanchez, D. (2016). A perceptual pathway to bias: Interracial exposure reduces abrupt shifts in real-time race perception that predict mixed-race bias. Psychological Science, 27, 502-517.* [PDF] [Suppl. Materials]

Pauker, K., Williams, A., & Steele, J. R. (2016). Children’s racial categorization in context. Child Development Perspectives, 10, 33-38. [PDF]


Pauker, K., Apfelbaum, E. P., & Spitzer, B. (2015). When societal norms and social identity collide: The race talk dilemma for racial minority children. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 6, 887-895. [PDF]

Sanchez, D. T., Young, D. M., Pauker, K. (2015). Exposure to Racial Ambiguity Influences Lay Theories of Race. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 6, 382-390.* [PDF]


Xu, Y., Farver, J. M., & Pauker, K. (2014). Ethnic identity and self-esteem among Asian and European Americans: When a minority is the majority and the majority is a minority. European Journal of Social Psychology, 45, 62-76. [PDF]

Slepian, M. L., Weisbuch, M., Pauker, K., Bastian, B. & Ambady, N. (2014). Fluid movements and fluid social cognition: Bodily movement influences essentialist thought. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 40, 111-120.* [PDF]

Gaither, S. E., Schultz, J. R., Pauker, K., Sommers, S. R, Maddox, K. B., & Ambady, N. (2014). Essentialist thinking predicts decrements in children’s memory for racially ambiguous faces. Developmental Psychology, 50, 482-488. [PDF]


Pauker, K., Ambady, N., & Freeman, J. (2013). The power of identity to motivate face memory in biracial individuals. Social Cognition, 31, 778-789. [PDF]

Carr, P. B., Dweck, C. S., & Pauker, K. (2012). “Prejudiced” behavior without prejudice? Beliefs about the malleability of prejudice affect interracial interactions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 103, 452-71. [PDF]

Gaither, S. E., Pauker, K., & Johnson, S. (2012). Biracial and monoracial infant own-race face perception: An eye tracking study. Developmental Science,15, 775-782. [PDF]

Johnson, K. L., Freeman, J., & Pauker, K. (2012). Race is gendered: How covarying phenotypes and stereotypes bias sex categorization. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 102, 116-131. [PDF]


Weisbuch, M., & Pauker, K. (2011). The nonverbal transmission of intergroup bias: A model of bias contagion with implications for social policy. Social Issues and Policy Review, 5, 257-291. [PDF]

Pauker, K., Ambady, N. & Apfelbaum, E. P. (2010). Race salience and essentialist thinking in racial stereotype development. Child Development, 81, 1799-1813. [PDF]

Apfelbaum, E. P., Pauker, K., Sommers, S. R., & Ambady, N. (2010). In Blind Pursuit of Racial Equality? Psychological Science, 21,1587-1592. [PDF]

Adams, R. B., Jr., Pauker, K., & Weisbuch, M. (2010). Looking the other way: The role of gaze direction in the cross-race memory effect. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46, 478-481. [PDF]

Freeman, J., Pauker, K., Apfelbaum, E., & Ambady, N. (2010). Continuous dynamics in the real-time perception of race. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46, 179-185. [PDF]

Pauker, K., Rule, N. O., & Ambady, N. (2010). Ambiguity and social perception. In E. Balcetis and G. D. Lassiter (Eds.), The Social Psychology of Visual Perception (pp. 13-29). New York, NY: Psychology Press.


Weisbuch, M., Pauker, K., & Ambady, N. (2009). The subtle transmission of race bias via televised nonverbal behavior. Science, 326, 1711-1714. [PDF] [SOM]

Pauker, K., Weisbuch, M., Ambady, N., Sommers, S. R., Adams, R. B. Jr., & Ivcevic, Z. (2009). Not so Black and White: Memory for ambiguous group members. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96, 795-810. [PDF]

Pauker, K. & Ambady, N. (2009). Multiracial faces: How categorization affects memory at the boundaries of race. Journal of Social Issues, 65, 69-86. [PDF]

Apfelbaum, E. P.,+ Pauker, K.,+ Ambady, N., Sommers, S. R., & Norton, M. I. (2008). Learning (not) to talk about race: When older children underperform in social categorization. Developmental Psychology, 44, 1513-1518. +Shared first authorship [PDF]

*Asterisked publications indicate data collected with NSF funding and these data are available to interested researchers. To request access to this data please, e-mail: