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2020 and In Press

Young, D. M., Sanchez, D. T., Pauker, K., & Gaither, S. E. (2020). A Meta-Analytic Review of Hypodescent Patterns in Categorizing Multiracial and Racially Ambiguous Targets. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin.* [PDF]

Mandalaywala, T. M., Tai, C., & Rhodes, M. (2020). Children’s use of race and gender as cues to social status. PloS one, 15(6), e0234398.

Pauker, K., Tai, C., & Ansari, S. (2020). Contextualizing the development of social essentialism. In M. Rhodes (Ed.) Advances in Child Development and Behavior, 59, 65-94. [PDF]

Meyers, C. K., Aumer, K., Schoniwitz, A., Janicki, C., Pauker, K., Chang, E. C., Gaither, S. E., & Williams, A. (2020). Experiences with microaggressions and discrimination in racially diverse and homogeneous contexts. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 26, 250-259.


Brey, E. L., & Pauker, K., (2019). Teachers’ nonverbal behaviors influence children’s stereotypic beliefs. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 188, 104671. [PDF]

Garay, M., Meyers, C. K., Remedios, J., & Pauker, K. (2019). Looking like vs. acting like your race: Social activism shapes perceptions of multiracial individuals. Self and Identity. Advance online publication:

Pauker, K., Brey, E. L., Lamer, S. A., & Weisbuch, M. (2019). Cultural snapshots: A method to capture social contexts in development of prejudice and stereotyping. In Benson, J. (Ed.) Advances in Child Development and Behavior, 56(3), 141-181. [PDF]

Gaither, S. E., Chen, J. M., Pauker, K., & Sommers, S. R. (2019). At face value: Psychological outcomes differ for real vs. computer-generated multiracial faces. Journal of Social Psychology, 159, 592-610. [PDF]


Chen, J. M., Pauker, K., Gaither, S. E., Hamilton, D. L., & Sherman, J. W. (2018). Black + White = Not White: A minority bias in categorizations of Black-White multiracials. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 78, 43-54. [PDF]

Pauker, K., Carpinella, C. M., Lick, D. J., Sanchez, D. T., & Johnson, K. L. (2018). Malleability in biracial categorizations: The impact of geographic context and targets’ racial heritage. Social Cognition, 36, 461-480.* [PDF]

Pauker, K., Meyers, C. K., Sanchez, D. T., Gaither, S. E., & Young, D. M. (2018). A review of multiracial malleability: Identity, categorization, and shifting racial attitudes. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 12, e12392.* [PDF]

Pauker, K., Carpinella, C., Meyers, C., Young, D., & Sanchez, D. (2018). The role of diversity exposure in Whites’ reduction in race essentialism over time. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 9, 944-952.* [PDF]

Williams, A., Kajiwara, K., Soon, R., Salcedo, J., Tschann, M., Elia, J., Pauker, K., & Kaneshiro, B. (2018). Recommendations for contraception: Examining the role of patients’ age and race. Hawaii Journal of Medicine and Public Health, 77, 7-13. [PDF]


Weisbuch, M., Pauker, K., Adams, R. B., Jr., & Lamer, S. (2017). Race, power, and reflexive gaze following. Social Cognition, 35, 619-638. [PDF]

Weisbuch, M., Lamer, S. A., Treinen, E., & Pauker, K. (2017). Cultural snapshots: Theory and method. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 11, e12334. [PDF]

McKeown, S., Williams, A., & Pauker, K. (2017). Stories that move them: Changing children’s behavior toward diverse peers. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 27, 381-387. [PDF]

Pauker, K., Williams, A., & Steele, J. R. (2017). The development of racial categorization in childhood. In. A. Rutland, D. Nesdale, & C. S. Brown (Eds.), The Wiley-Black Handbook of Group Processes in Children and Adolescents. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd. [PDF]


Pauker, K., Xu, Y., Williams, A., & Biddle, A. M. (2016). Race essentialism and contextual differences in children’s racial stereotyping. Child Development, 87, 1409-1422. [PDF]

Gaither, S. E., Pauker, K., Slepian, M. L., & Sommers, S. R. (2016). Social belonging motivates categorization of racially-ambiguous faces. Social Cognition, 34, 97-118. [PDF]

Freeman, J. B., Pauker, K., & Sanchez, D. (2016). A perceptual pathway to bias: Interracial exposure reduces abrupt shifts in real-time race perception that predict mixed-race bias. Psychological Science, 27, 502-517.* [PDF] [Suppl. Materials]

Pauker, K., Williams, A., & Steele, J. R. (2016). Children’s racial categorization in context. Child Development Perspectives, 10, 33-38. [PDF]


Pauker, K., Apfelbaum, E. P., & Spitzer, B. (2015). When societal norms and social identity collide: The race talk dilemma for racial minority children. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 6, 887-895. [PDF]

Sanchez, D. T., Young, D. M., Pauker, K. (2015). Exposure to Racial Ambiguity Influences Lay Theories of Race. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 6, 382-390.* [PDF]


Xu, Y., Farver, J. M., & Pauker, K. (2014). Ethnic identity and self-esteem among Asian and European Americans: When a minority is the majority and the majority is a minority. European Journal of Social Psychology, 45, 62-76. [PDF]

Slepian, M. L., Weisbuch, M., Pauker, K., Bastian, B. & Ambady, N. (2014). Fluid movements and fluid social cognition: Bodily movement influences essentialist thought. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 40, 111-120.* [PDF]

Gaither, S. E., Schultz, J. R., Pauker, K., Sommers, S. R, Maddox, K. B., & Ambady, N. (2014). Essentialist thinking predicts decrements in children’s memory for racially ambiguous faces. Developmental Psychology, 50, 482-488. [PDF]


Pauker, K., Ambady, N., & Freeman, J. (2013). The power of identity to motivate face memory in biracial individuals. Social Cognition, 31, 778-789. [PDF]

Carr, P. B., Dweck, C. S., & Pauker, K. (2012). “Prejudiced” behavior without prejudice? Beliefs about the malleability of prejudice affect interracial interactions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 103, 452-71. [PDF]

Gaither, S. E., Pauker, K., & Johnson, S. (2012). Biracial and monoracial infant own-race face perception: An eye tracking study. Developmental Science,15, 775-782. [PDF]

Johnson, K. L., Freeman, J., & Pauker, K. (2012). Race is gendered: How covarying phenotypes and stereotypes bias sex categorization. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 102, 116-131. [PDF]


Weisbuch, M., & Pauker, K. (2011). The nonverbal transmission of intergroup bias: A model of bias contagion with implications for social policy. Social Issues and Policy Review, 5, 257-291. [PDF]

Pauker, K., Ambady, N. & Apfelbaum, E. P. (2010). Race salience and essentialist thinking in racial stereotype development. Child Development, 81, 1799-1813. [PDF]

Apfelbaum, E. P., Pauker, K., Sommers, S. R., & Ambady, N. (2010). In Blind Pursuit of Racial Equality? Psychological Science, 21,1587-1592. [PDF]

Adams, R. B., Jr., Pauker, K., & Weisbuch, M. (2010). Looking the other way: The role of gaze direction in the cross-race memory effect. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46, 478-481. [PDF]

Freeman, J., Pauker, K., Apfelbaum, E., & Ambady, N. (2010). Continuous dynamics in the real-time perception of race. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46, 179-185. [PDF]

Pauker, K., Rule, N. O., & Ambady, N. (2010). Ambiguity and social perception. In E. Balcetis and G. D. Lassiter (Eds.), The Social Psychology of Visual Perception (pp. 13-29). New York, NY: Psychology Press.


Weisbuch, M., Pauker, K., & Ambady, N. (2009). The subtle transmission of race bias via televised nonverbal behavior. Science, 326, 1711-1714. [PDF] [SOM]

Pauker, K., Weisbuch, M., Ambady, N., Sommers, S. R., Adams, R. B. Jr., & Ivcevic, Z. (2009). Not so Black and White: Memory for ambiguous group members. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96, 795-810. [PDF]

Pauker, K. & Ambady, N. (2009). Multiracial faces: How categorization affects memory at the boundaries of race. Journal of Social Issues, 65, 69-86. [PDF]

Apfelbaum, E. P.,+ Pauker, K.,+ Ambady, N., Sommers, S. R., & Norton, M. I. (2008). Learning (not) to talk about race: When older children underperform in social categorization. Developmental Psychology, 44, 1513-1518. +Shared first authorship [PDF]

*Asterisked publications indicate data collected with NSF funding and these data are available to interested researchers. To request access to this data please, e-mail: