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Engineering, Technology, and the Application of Science Performance Expectations

Table 2.12. Core ideas for Engineering, Technology, and the Application Science performance expectations
Core Idea

ETS1: Engineering Design

ETS1.A: Defining and Delimiting an Engineering Problem
ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions
ETS1.C: Optimizing the Design Solution
ETS2: Links Among Engineering, Technology, Science, and Society
ETS2.A: Interdependence of Science, Engineering, and Technology
ETS2.B: Influence of Engineering, Technology, and Science on Society and the Natural World

Defining Performance Expectations

According to the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), performance expectations describe what students who demonstrate understanding should know and be able to do. Performance expectations encompass practices, crosscutting concepts, and disciplinary core ideas (DCI). Unlike performance expectations in the other three domains, engineering performance expectations are not accompanied by clarification statements or assessment boundaries (Table 2.11). Full performance expectations including links to common core state standards and how each expectation is related to practices, crosscutting concepts, and DCI are available on the NGSS website.


Table 2.11. Example of an Engineering, Technology, and the Application of Science Performance Expectation
HS-ETS1-1. Analyze a major global challenge to specify qualitative and quantitative criteria and constraints for solutions that account for societal needs and wants.


<p><strong>Fig. 2.28.</strong> Conductivity-testing diagram</p><br />

Performance Expectations often encompass a depth and breadth of content that is beyond the scope of any one lesson or activity. For this reason, in Exploring Our Fluid Earth, Performance Expectations are aligned at the topic level. Each topic contains a combination of content, activities, and/or question sets that build toward the associated performance expectations. For each topic, a linking sentence describes how the contents of the topic address the performance expectations.


For example, this curriculum addresses the performance expectation MS-ETS1-4 (Develop a model to generate data for iterative testing and modification of proposed object, tool, or process such that an optimal design can be achieved) in the topic Conductivity (Fig. 2.28). The linking sentence for this topic describes how the content and activities in the topic work towards building an understanding of how properties of solutions, including molecular structure and electrostatic forces, affect conductivity.

Representative Image: 
Exploring Our Fluid Earth, a product of the Curriculum Research & Development Group (CRDG), College of Education. University of Hawaii, 2011. This document may be freely reproduced and distributed for non-profit educational purposes.