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Question Set: Evidence of Common Ancestry and Diversity
NGSS Science and Engineering Practices
NGSS Crosscutting Concepts
  1. What are choanoflagellates? What is their significance to the evolution of animals?
  2. Why is the kingdom Animalia considered monophyletic? Why are the invertebrates considered paraphyletic?
  3. Describe the evolutionary relationships between the following pairs of taxa:
    1. Animals and fungi
    2. Sponges and cnidarians
    3. Phylum Cnidaria and phylum Annelida
    4. Arthropods and crustaceans
    5. Phylum Mollusca and phylum Echinodermata


Fig. 3.4. Phylogeny of major phyla within the kingdom Animalia

Image courtesy of Schierwater et al. 2009 originally published in PLOS Biology

  1. The phylum Porifera (sponges) is considered to be basal relative to phylum Mollusca (Fig. 3.4).
    1. Use your own words to explain the meaning of the previous sentence to a student one year younger than yourself.
    2. Does this previous sentence mean that sponge species are older than mollusc species? Explain your reasoning.
  2. What is the difference between a zygote and an embryo?
  3. Use your own words to define and distinguish the terms protostome and deuterostome. What is the evolutionary significance of these two groups?
Exploring Our Fluid Earth, a product of the Curriculum Research & Development Group (CRDG), College of Education. University of Hawaii, 2011. This document may be freely reproduced and distributed for non-profit educational purposes.