skip to Main Content
Course List

PLAN 310:
INTRODUCTION TO PLANNING (3) Introduction to urban and regional planning.  Examination of why people plan and what happens when they do.  Emphasis on planning in Hawai’i, but cases from the mainland and other countries are reviewed as well.  This course provides an opportunity for students to explore the nature of the planning profession and whether they wish to pursue a career in planning.

PLAN 399:
DIRECTED READING IN PLANNING (V) Independent research on topics in urban and regional planning.
Pre: PLAN 310.

PLAN 414:
Building Community Resilience (3) This course is intended to give a good understanding of the natural forces behind the most common natural disasters, and the human actions that reduce or increase vulnerability to natural disasters. (Cross-listed as GEOG 414)
Pre: Junior standing or consent.

PLAN 473:
GIS for Community Planning (3) Exploration of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Area Analysis techniques for spatial information management for community planning. Students will learn the basic concepts and principles, and practical skills of GIS through lectures, discussions, and lab.
Pre: Junior standing or higher. Repeatable once.

PLAN 495:
LAND & HOUSING ECONOMICS (3) Microeconomic analysis of Honolulu’s land and housing such as land price, affordable housing, speculation, leasehold conversion, rent controls, NIMBY, congestion pricing and parking, Hawaiian homelands, etc.

PLAN 500:

PLAN 600:
PUBLIC POLICY AND PLANNING THEORY (3) This course is designed to (a) impart a historic and comparative perspective on the evolution of urban and regional development; (b) explore the spatial and built environment dimensions of society, planning, and policy; (c) assess the justifications for planning of differing processes of planning in the U.S. and Asia-Pacific with a focus on the role of the planner in policy formation and implementation. This course is repeatable twice.

PLAN 601:
PLANNING METHODS (3) A basic methods class for graduate students in urban and regional planning. Topics covered include problem definition, research design, measurement theory, survey research, questionnaire design, data collection and interviewing techniques, database management, statistical reasoning, hypothesis testing, and computer applications in urban and regional planning. The course will involve the design, administration, and analysis of a survey.Pre: ECON 321 or GEOG 380 or SOC 476. Repeatable once.

PLAN 602:
ADVANCED PLANNING THEORY (3) Advanced planning theory course for Ph.D. students (others by petition) to prepare for careers in planning education and/or high level professional practice. Covers key contemporary public policy issues and themes from the perspective of values, explanations of the real world, policy alternatives and implementation.
Pre: Students taking this course must have passed PLAN 600 or equivalent (by petition) with a grade B or better.

PLAN 603:
URBAN ECONOMICS FOR PLANNERS (3) Spatial economic theories, analyses and processes of urban and regional development, focusing on functions of urban region, urban spatial structure, urban growth, and regional development.  Pre: Consent is required. Some fundamental knowledge of geometry and microeconomics is strongly recommended. Repeatable once.

PLAN 604:
QUALITATIVE METHODS IN PLANNING (3) Course provides a general introduction to qualitative research methods for planning and planning research. Includes data collection method (focus groups, interviews, ethnography, participant observation, and participatory action research) and various analytic methods and approaches.
Pre: PLAN 601.

PLAN 605:
PLANNING MODELS (3) Students design and use spreadsheet models to analyze problems in urban and regional planning. The principal topics include: the use, role, and limitations of mathematical models in planning; basic decision models of choice and chance; cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis for program and project evaluation; linear and nonlinear models used in making populations projections; models used for optimization of economic activity; and simulation of urban phenomena.
Pre: ECON 321 or SOC 476 or GEOG 380; equivalent course in descriptive/inferential statistics, or consent. Repeatable once.

PLAN 606:
COMPARATIVE PLANNING HISTORIES (3) This course provides students with an overview of the history of urban and regional planning in the United States, Europe, and Asia, and the role that planning has played in shaping contemporary urban settlements.

PLAN 607:
INTRODUCTION TO PUBLIC POLICY (3) This course provides perspectives on policy analysis, which includes basic approaches to the study of public policy, political economy, and policy evaluation. (Cross-listed as POLS 670)

PLAN 608:
POLITICS AND DEVELOPMENT:CHINA (3) This course consists of three parts (a) key theories for socialist transition as basis for seminar discussion, (b) policy evolution to illustrate the radical changes, and (c) emerging and prominent current development and practice. (Cross-listed as ASAN 608, and POLS 645)
Pre: One of PLAN 600, POLS 308 or POLS 341, or consent.

PLAN 610:
COMMUNITY PLANNING AND SOCIAL POLICY (3) Critical analysis of approaches to social policies, particularly as they affect issues of poverty and community development. Review of major debates in selected areas, including welfare reform, employment, housing, education, and crime. Emphasis on innovative approaches that communities are taking in partnership with public and private sectors to address contemporary social problems.
Pre: PLAN 600 (or concurrent); or consent. Repeatable once.

PLAN 615:
HOUSING (3) Examination of urban housing and homelessness from a political economy perspective, within the context of broader economic forces at work in the U.S. and internationally. Emphasis is on policy, planning and programs. Housing issues are considered in reference to the interests and actions of the actors involved–financial institutions, developers, government, landowners, and consumers. Focus primarily on U.S. and Hawai’i, with international comparisons.
Pre: PLAN 610 or consent

PLAN 616:
COMMUNITY BASED PLANNING (3) This course explores planning and programmatic aspects of community-based development projects. East-West and local planning perspectives on participatory development and intentional communities are covered in this course.
Pre: PLAN 600 (or concurrent).

PLAN 618:
COMMUNITY ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT (3) Examines methods and strategies that communities can employ to develop economic opportunities consistent with their values and visions of “community”.  Various approaches will be explored including cooperatives, microenterprises, community development finance institutions and education, and training programs.
Pre: Consent. Recommended to have taken PLAN 616. Repeatable once.

PLAN 619:
MULTICULTURALISM IN PLANNING AND POLICY (3) This graduate seminar focuses on issues’ of governance, policy and planning in diverse multicultural societies. Differences in backgrounds, languages, privilege, preferences and values are often expressed in planning and policy controversies such as affirmative action and land use planning. This course will examine these controversies and explore theories of governance in a multicultural setting.
Pre: Plan 600 or consent.

PLAN 620:
ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING AND POLICY(3) This course reviews environmental and natural problems of significance to urban and regional planners. It is also a survey of the political, institutional, economic, and scientific aspects of planning and policies.
Pre: PLAN 600 (or concurrent) or consent. Repeatable once.

PLAN 622:
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT(3) Theory and practice of environmental impact assessment is covered in this course, including policy and planning frameworks supporting environmental assessment in the U.S. and abroad. This course teaches cumulative environmental effects and strategic environmental assessment. (Cross-listed as GEOG 622)
Pre: Graduate standing

PLAN 624:
ENVIRONMENTAL VALUATION AND POLICY (3) Builds valuation skills when assessing best use, conservation, and policies relating to environmental planners. Tools introduced in this class include methods of environmental valuation such as hedonic pricing techniques, conjoint analysis, and other survey methods pertaining to situations of externalities or the provision of environmental goods.
Pre: PLAN 600, 603, or consent.

PLAN 625:
CLIMATE CHANGE, ENERGY, AND FOOD SECURITY IN ASIA/PACIFIC REGION (3) Analysis of the planning responses to human-induced climate change and related environmental problems. This course is part of the Asia/Pacific Initiative and is taught in collaboration with Universities throughout the region via video-conference and an online learning system.
Pre: PLAN 620 (or concurrent) or consent.

PLAN 626:
TOPICS IN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (3) In this course, students will learn about issues, analytical techniques, and management strategies for different resource systems including land, water, energy, coastal resources, forests, and fisheries. The focus of this course varies from year to year.
Pre: Consent. Repeatable once.

PLAN 627:
NEGOTIATION AND MEDIATION IN PLANNING (3) Identification of different methods for resolving environmental disputes in the public sector involving multiple actors. Development of skills in selecting and applying methods most appropriate for resolving particular disputes. Pre: PLAN 600 or consent.

PLAN 628:
URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS (3) This is a seminar course that examines environmental problems associated with urbanization. It reviews strategic approaches and collaboration among key actors to address such problems.
Pre: PLAN 600 or consent.


PLAN 629:
ADVANCED NEGOTIATION (3) Mastery of advanced negotiation skills for strategic dispute resolution, non-routine problem-solving, creating partnerships and alliances, and crafting optimal agreements. Students participate in simulations and acquire personal and professional skills vital for leadership. (Cross-listed as PACE 629)
Pre: Graduate standing and one of the following courses: PACE 429, 447, 477, 647, 652, or 668; or PLAN 627; or COMG 445 or SOC 730; or LAW 508; or MGT 660.


PLAN 630:
URBAN AND REGIONAL PLANNING IN ASIA (3) Key issues and policies in urban planning, national spatial planning, rural regional planning, and impacts of globalization on cities and regions in Asia. (Cross-listed as GEOG 630)
Pre: PLAN 603 or consent.

PLAN 632:
PLANNING IN HAWAI’I & PACIFIC ISLANDS (3) This course explores urban and regional planning in island settings as well as governance, central and local planning, and indigenous cultures. Other topics that are covered in this course include compatible, sustainable, and affordable development in addition to sovereignty, local autonomy, and customary land rights. Land tenure, land use and native trusts are examined alongside infrastructure, village, settlement and town plan making. A main focus of the course is environmental management in island ecologies such as Polynesia, Melanesia and Micronesia.
Pre: Graduate standing.

PLAN 633:
GLOBALIZATION AND URBAN POLICY (3) Students who take this course will be exposed to urbanization and urban policies in the Asia and Pacific region with a focus on the international dimension of national and local development. (Cross-listed as GEOG 633)
Pre: PLAN 603 or consent.

PLAN 634:
SHELTER AND SERVICES IN ASIA (3) This course examines government and non-government organizations’ responses to urban and rural shelter issues and services in Asia, with focuses on political economy, community participation, issues of access to land and resources, affordability and integration of social and physical improvements.
Pre: PLAN 630.

PLAN 635:
EAST ASIAN DEVELOPMENT: POLICY & PLANNING ISSUES (3) Political economy of East Asian development: growth paths and patterns, historical evolution and theoretical review, industrialization and urbanization, global economy and international investment, social diversification and democratization.

PLAN 636:
CULTURE AND URBAN FORM IN ASIA (3) Cultural and historical impact on urban form, contention of tradition and modernity in urban space, spatial expression of state and society, perception and utilization of urban design, evolution of urban form in selected Asian capitals. (Cross-listed as ASAN 636)
Pre: PLAN 310 or 600 or ASAN 312 or consent.

PLAN 637:
ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT (3) Examines how theories and practice of development and environment have been produced, maintained, used, and challenged in Asia. The rise and fall of dominant development paradigms; emerging debates on development and environment in post-modern era; cases of community-based approach to environment and development planning. (Cross-listed as GEOG 637)

PLAN 638:
ASIAN DEVELOPMENT AND URBANIZATION (3) This course focuses on the relationship between national and urban development in Asia. It examines the political economy of development and urbanization, and reviews selected case studies of Asian industrializing economies. (Cross-listed as ASAN 638 and GEOG 638)
Pre: PLAN 630 or ASAN 600 (with a grade of B or above) or consent.

PLAN 639:
COMMUNITY-BASED NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (3) Concepts and theories of community, resource access, and governance are discussed in this course along with the practical challenges to community-based natural resource management. (Cross-listed as GEOG 639)
Pre: Graduate standing.

PLAN 640:
LAND USE POLICIES AND PROGRAMS (3) Assessment of land use planning and community guidance in urban and regional settings in the U.S. evolution of land uses planning and contemporary practices. This course includes coverage of growth management and land use guidance systems. Review of legislative measures and land development impacts on the human, natural and built environment.
Pre:PLAN 600 and 601, or consent.

PLAN 641
NEIGHBORHOOD AND COMMUNITY LAND-USE PLANNING (3) Land use planning for urban neighborhoods and small towns.  Theory and practice of neighborhood planning.  Neighborhood and community dynamics, reinvestment and stabilization.
Pre: PLAN 640 or consent.

PLAN 642:
PLANNING URBAN INFRASTRUCTURE (3) This course covers capital budgeting, project planning, and financing for large scale urban infrastructure.
Pre: PLAN 600, 601, and consent.

PLAN 643:
(3) Examines project management in theory and practice and the roles and responsibilities of the project manager. Focuses on planning, organizing and controlling the efforts of projects.
Pre: Consent.

PLAN 645:
LAND USE PLANNING (3) Issues and methods of urban land use planning practice and plan making.
Pre: PLAN 640 or consent.

PLAN 646:
URBAN FORM (3) Principles and concepts of neighborhood, town, and city design and planning; the form, structure, and spatial organization of cities; study of metropolitan-wide versus community-based urban form requirements and standards.  Emphasis on the spatial organization of building structures, activity location and land utilization.  Students conduct individual case study analyses on selected topics.

PLAN 647:
URBAN AND REGIONAL PLANNING FOR SUSTAINABILITY (3) Focus on ideology, conceptual models, accounting, framework, appropriate technologies, and indicators of planning for sustainability. Central and local policies, plans, and best practices in various countries and settings will be covered.
Pre: Graduate standing. Repeatable once.

PLAN 648:
URBAN TRANSPORTATION POLICY AND PLANNING (3) Characteristics of urban travel and transportation systems.  Theory and practice of urban transportation planning in developed and developing countries with emphasis on the U.S. and the Asia and Pacific region.  Generating plans to improve access, mobility and safety; improving transportation system capacity and managing travel demand; evaluating and implementing transportation projects and programs.
Pre: PLAN 600 and 601, or consent.

PLAN 650:
RESEARCH DESIGN SEMINAR (3) Preparation for thesis research; guidance through stages of research design and preparation of formal written proposal. Normally taken after admission to candidacy in MURP.
Pre: Consent.

PLAN 652:
POLICY IMPLEMENTATION AND PROGRAM EVALUATION (3) Implementation and evaluation in public policy analysis, philosophical and methodological issues, impact of policies and plans, use of evaluation research in program implementation.
Pre: PLAN 601 or consent.

PLAN 654:
APPLIED GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS: PUBLIC POLICY AND SPATIAL ANALYSIS (3) Use of advanced and specialized analytical methods and models in urban and regional planning.  This course builds upon PLAN 601, but focuses on application of methods and models in such specialized areas as land use and transportation planning, economic development, and environmental planning and resource management. Geographic information software (GIS) is used in this course.
Pre: Graduate standing or consent.

PLAN 655:
PLANNING RESEARCH METHODS(3) Advanced methods and deterministic and stochiastic models used in urban and regional planning.
Pre: PLAN 601 and 605; or consent.

PLAN 661:
COLLABORATION BETWEEN SECTORS (3) Examine theories and practices of multisector collaboration (public, private, nonprofit). The use of collaboration as an alternative way of solving public problems.

PLAN 670:
INTERDISCIPLINARY SEMINAR IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT & HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE (3) A comprehensive seminar and overview of the field. Learning objectives include developing a common language for cross-disciplinary interchange and collaboration in this integrative field. Coverage includes distinguishing and comparing natural hazard disasters and human-induced disasters. Understanding the disaster cycle concept; integrating response, recovery, mitigation, disaster resilient development, and preparedness. Developing an understanding of the diversity of participants and stakeholders in the hazards and disaster community. Finding the appropriate scale; local, national, regional, global. Formatted as a guest lecture seminar, the course is a primary vehicle for focusing and maintaining faculty interest and involvement in the program.
Pre: Graduate standing or consent.

PLAN 671 
DISASTER MANAGEMENT: UNDERSTANDING THE NATURE OF HAZARDS (3) The objective of this course is to provide an insight on the types of hazards, and its forecasting, warning, and improved response system. This course focuses on the scientific understanding of the forces and processes underlying natural hazards. Emphasis is put on human attempts to respond to these though mitigation and planning activities.
Cross-listed as GG 604)
Pre: PLAN 670 or consent.

PLAN 672:
HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE: PRINCIPLES, PRACTICES, AND POLITICS (3) A multidisciplinary look at how the world responds to disaster, crisis and deprivation. The course provides graduate students an opportunity to understand both the basic working structure of humanitarian assistance programs and the theoretical basis for contemporary practice. The major component functions of humanitarian assistance: health and medical services; water supply and sanitation; nutrition and food security; shelter, settlement and infrastructure. How humanitarian work is funded,by who, and why; accountability- or the lack thereof; emergent professionalism and the problem of standards, management issues in aid administration.
Pre: PLAN 670 or consent.

Plan 673:
INFORMATION SYSTEMS FOR DISASTER MANAGEMENT AND HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE (3) Remote sensing technologies allow for the acquisition of useful observations of hazard phenomena, thereby facilitating the development of monitoring and early warning systems. GIS benefits all aspects of the emergency management cycle from planning, mitigation and preparedness through response and recovery by integrating complex data in a geographic framework that produces actionable information. A basic familiarity with spatial data methods is increasingly critical to informed participation in DMHA decision-making roles. The course will also introduce satellite communications and other information and communications technologies used in disaster management.
Pre: PLAN 670 or consent.

PLAN 674:
DISASTER RECOVERY: THEORY AND PRACTICE (3) Examination of how communities recover from disaster. Provides students with an overview of recovery theory and an understanding of how planners, policy maker, and ordinary citizens rebuild communities, cities, and nations following catastrophic events.
Pre: Graduate standing.

PLAN 675:
PRESERVATION:  THEORY AND PRACTICE (3) History and philosophy of the historic preservation movement. Analysis of values and assumptions, methodologies and tactics, implications for society and public policy.
(Cross-listed as AMST 675 and ARCH 628)

PLAN 676:
RECORDING HISTORIC AND CULTURAL RESOURCES (3) Techniques in recording and evaluation of historic buildings and other resources, with an emphasis on field recordings and state and federal registration procedures.
(Cross-listed as AMST 676 and ANTH 676)
Pre: Graduate standing or consent.

PLAN 677:
HISTORIC PRESERVATION AND PLANNING (3) Local-level historic preservation, with an emphasis on historic districts, design guidelines, regulatory controls, and community consensus-building.
(Cross-listed as AMST 677)

PLAN 678:
SITE PLANNING (3) Fundamental principles that guide site planning, including planning and design determinants of the site, taking into account its regional context, site-specific characteristics and applicable codes, ordinances, and standards.
Pre: DURP and School of Architecture students only.

PLAN 680:
LAND USE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL (V) Survey course of public land use management.
(Cross-listed as LAW 580)

PLAN 699:
Pre:  Consent of instructor and Department Chair.  Repeatable.

PLAN 700:
THESIS RESEARCH (V) Limited to students preparing MURP research under Plan A.
Pre: Consent.

Plan 721:
HOMELAND SECURITY: TERRORISM (3) Combined lecture and discussion course in the Disaster Management and Humanitarian Assistance track focusing on developing a multidisciplinary understanding of international terrorism and anti-terrorism planning and response.
Pre: PLAN 670 or consent.

PLAN 740:
SEMINAR IN PLANNING THEORY (3) Special topics in planning theory, history, analysis.
Pre: PLAN 600 or consent.

PLAN 741:
SEMINAR IN PLANNING PRACTICE (3) Special topics in project planning, programming and other aspects of planning practice.  Consult DURP semester course brochure for specifics.  Repeatable.

PLAN 751:
PLANNING PRACTICUM (6) Practicum involving five or more students and a faculty member engaging in a planning process.  Emphasis on dealing with an immediate set of planning issues.  Group determines in consultation with faculty member:  (1) bounds of the problem(s); (2) resources available; (3) how the resources will be allocated; (4) what impact the group will seek to have; (5) services to be delivered or products to be produced; and (6) how it will work as a team to achieve its objectives.  The group is involved in implementing, evaluating and reshaping its own plan of operation.  Some capstones produce widely-disseminated, published reports, often for specific clients; others, especially those serving community groups, tend to produce analyses, draft testimony, surveys and guides.  Topic varies.
Pre: PLAN 600, 601, and consent.

PLAN 752:
DIRECTED PROJECT (V) Individual project in planning analysis, plan preparation and/or evaluation and policy/program evaluation.
Pre: PLAN 600, 601, and consent.

PLAN 754:
URBAN DESIGN  STUDIO (6) Practicum addressing selected planning problems.  Emphasis on the physical planning aspects of urban functions, activity locations, land arrangements and building forms as they relate to life style, community self-reliance and local resources.  Developing plans as a way to achieve public policy objectives.  Prototypical solutions consistent with stated policy objectives explored at various community scales.  Close contact with community organizations and public agencies active in the planning process.  Meets DURP capstone requirement.
Pre: PLAN 640 or consent.

PLAN 752V:
(1) Research for doctoral dissertation.
Pre: Consent and must be PhD student. Repeatable.

A memorandum of agreement (MOA) between the Center for Hawaiian Studies and the Department of Urban and Regional Planning (DURP) identifies a set of Hawaiian Studies (HWST) courses in which DURP Master and PhD students can enroll with waived prerequisites, upon approval from their advisor. While HWST 2/300-level courses may be taken, they will not count toward the MURP degree. The Hawaiian Studies courses, while taught in English, rely on Hawaiian language, concepts and primary source documents as a fundamental basis of its academic program. DURP students enrolling in HWST courses are advised that there is a reasonable expectation by Hawaiian Studies faculty that students be familiar with Hawaiian language in these courses.

HWST 207 Hawaiian Perspectives in Ahupua’a (3) Examination of the ahupua’a system: its mythologies, place names, history, poetry and early documents of the Hawaiian nation, as it was conceptualized by the ancient Hawaiians and exploration of its relevance in modem society. A-F only.

HWST 440 Miihele Land Awards (3) Practical guide to the researching ofland awards and change in title for a single ahupua’a, 1848 to present. Focus on field trips.

HWST 441 Ceded Lands: Focus on Crown and Government Lands (1848 to Present)(3) Inventorying “Ceded Lands” in Hawai’i with emphasis on historical, legal, and cultural changes from the Kingdom through statehood. A-F only.

HWST 442 Introduction to Indigenous Research Methods (3) Survey course introduces students to a range of methods by beginning with a critical analysis of dominant research methodologies from the perspective of Indigenous scholars.

HWST 445 Hawaiian Institutions (3) Comprehensive analysis of institutions like Bishop
Estate/Kamehameha Schools, OHA, Lili’uokalani Trust, Department of Hawaiian Home Lands and The Queen’s Hospital.

HWST 455 Ola I Ka Wai: Water and Sovereignty in Hawai’i (3) Focus on Hawaiian relationships with Ka Wai Ola a Kane (water), traditional and contemporary water management practices, as well as contemporary resource management issues and Native Hawaiian community advocacy for water.

HWST 457 ‘Aina Mauliola: Hawaiian Ecosystems (3) Comprehensive analysis of traditional Hawaiian and modern resource management practices. Rigorous overview of the dominant physical and biological processes from the uplands to the oceans in Hawai’i.

HWST 458 Natural Resource Issues and Ethics (4) Overview of the history ofland, resources and power in Hawai’i; players and processes influencing land and natural resources policies today explored from Native Hawaiian and other viewpoints. Extensive use of case studies.

HWST 459 Strategies in Hawaiian Resource Use (3) Analyzing diverse land and water use strategies of O’ahu, from.traditional Hawaiian, scientific and economic perspectives, through classroom and on-site lectures. Topics include traditional Hawaiian methods, modern development, threatened ecosystems, ecotourism and scientific research. A-F only.

HWST 495 Kumu Kiiniiwai: Western Law and Hawai’i (3) The rise of Western law in Hawai’i, its contribution to nation building and colonialism.

HWST 496 Kiiniiwai II: Practical Application of Rights (3) Historical analysis of land use, race and self­determination; introduced to legal case briefing, analysis of legal precedent, practical impacts of rules and regulations and the sociopolitical factors that influence law and law enforcement. A-F only.

HWST 601 Indigenous Research Methodologies (3) Reading seminar for developing a Native Hawaiian epistemology from sources in comparative indigenous thought. A-F only.

HWST 602 Hawaiian Archival Research (3) Research seminar aimed at familiarizing students with the rich historical primary sources existent in various archives in Honolulu. A-F only.

HWST 691 Kukulu Aupuni: Sovereign Hawaiian State, Domestic Kingdom Law, Governance and Politics (3) Research seminar on the subject of domestic law, governance, and politics of the Hawaiian Kingdom and the historical relevance of this to the contemporary case for independent, sovereign state continuity under public international law. A-F only.

Back To Top