CREDE Research Reports

Research Reports


Research Report 13

The Development of Bilingualism and Biliteracy from Grade 3 to 5: A Summary of Findings from the CAL/CREDE Study of Two-Way Immersion Education

Elizabeth Howard, Donna Christian, & Fred Genesee (2004)

This report describes a two-way immersion study looking at the language and literacy development of both native Spanish speakers and native English. The report is unique in that it looks at both groups as they progress over time in a multidimensional format and with a national scope. Included are the research design and analysis of data gathered in this CAL/CREDE study.


Research Report 12

Secondary School Newcomer Programs in the United States

Beverly A. Boyson & Deborah J. Short (2004)

This report focuses on programming for immigrant students. This newest, data-rich Research Report from CREDE presents a four-year study of newcomer programs across the country. Using a detailed questionnaire, researchers collected and synthesized data on many characteristics of existing newcomer programs. The report describes the population that newcomer programs serve as well as rationales for the recent development of these programs. Purchase the report for findings regarding program model, program features, instructional design, student assessment, staffing and professional development, and parent and community connections! (33 pp.)


Research Report 11

Review of Research on Educational Resilience

Hersh C. Waxman, Jon P. Gray, Yolanda N. Padrón (2003)

This report reviews classic and more recent studies of “resilient” students who succeed in school despite the presence of adverse conditions. The report investigates how results of such studies might lead to improvements in the education of students at risk of academic failure and examines issues related to the definition of resiliency. Implications for educational practice and research are also discussed.


Research Report 10

Impact of Two-Way Bilingual Elementary Programs on Students’ Attitudes Toward School and College

Kathryn J. Lindholm-Leary and Graciela Borsato (2001)

This report examines the influence that participation in a two-way bilingual elementary program has had on high school students’ attitudes toward school, college, and use of Spanish. Students were categorized into three cohorts–Hispanic Spanish bilinguals (former English language learners), Hispanic English bilinguals (former monolingual English or English dominant speakers), and Euro-American English bilinguals (former monolingual English speakers)–and surveyed about their attitudes and proficiency in Spanish. Results show that most students had positive attitudes toward school and college, the two-way program, and bilingualism.


Research Report 9

Sociocultural Factors in Social Relationships: Examining Latino Teachers’ and Paraeducators’ Interactions with Latino Students

Lilia D. Monzo and Robert S. Rueda (2001)

This report explores the impact of sociocultural factors on the relationships and interactions between Latino students and 32 Latino teachers and paraeducators. Findings suggest that teachers’ and paraeducators’ knowledge of students’ cultures, communities, primary languages, and familiar interactional styles can facilitate meeting students’ academic needs. This report extends research from Research Report 8, Apprenticeship for Teaching: Professional Development Issues Surrounding the Collaborative Relationship Between Teachers and Paraeducators.


Research Report 8

Apprenticeship for Teaching: Professional Development Issues Surrounding the Collaborative Relationship Between Teachers and Paraeducators

Robert S. Rueda and Lilia D. Monzo (2000)

This report discusses findings from a study that examined issues surrounding the collaborative relationship between Latino paraeducators and the classroom teachers with whom they worked. The researchers assessed the role of the paraeducator in the classroom, the nature of the paraeducator-teacher relationship, and the institutional factors impacting collaboration. They found that paraeducators do engage in teaching students, but there is a lack of interaction between teachers and paraeducators due to the social structures in the school culture. Moreover, teachers do not tap into paraeducators’ knowledge of students’ culture and community. The report briefly discusses the policy implications of these findings.


Research Report 7

Collaborative Practices in Bilingual Cooperative Learning Classrooms

John Gumperz, Jenny Cook-Gumperz, & Margaret Szymanski (2000)

In cooperative learning environments, small groups of students work together to accomplish specific tasks and teachers act as facilitators. What happens when students are left alone to work on classroom tasks? This report examines the role that everyday informal conversation among students plays in cooperative learning situations in monolingual and bilingual classrooms.


Research Report 6

The Effects of Instructional Conversations and Literature Logs on the Story Comprehension and Thematic Understanding of English Proficient and Limited English Proficient Students

William Saunders & Claude Goldenberg (1998)

In a study of English language arts transition programs for Spanish speaking students, researchers found that when teachers used both literature logs and instructional conversations with limited English proficient fourth and fifth graders, the students understood the literature being studied better than when teachers used only one of the techniques. For students already fluent in English, however, the combined effects of literature logs and instructional conversations were not significantly greater than the effect of a single approach.


Research Report 5

Educational Reform Implementation: A Co-Constructed Process

Amanda Datnow, Lea Hubbard & Hugh Mehan (1998)

In this report, the researchers present their initial findings from a study of two CREDE projects: one on the implementation of the school reform efforts in “Sunland County” schools, and the other on the implementation of the Advancement Via Individual Determination (AVID) untracking program in Kentucky schools. The researchers examine how reform efforts succeed, and discuss the consequences of different perspectives involved in the implementation process, the influence of the schools’ cultures, and how school-site educators may facilitate or hinder the process of reform.


Research Report 4

Pedagogy Matters: Standards for Effective Teaching Practice

Stephanie S. Dalton (1998)

This report presents CREDE’s five standards for effective pedagogy: joint productive activity, language and literacy development, meaning making, complex thinking, and instructional conversation. The standards emerge from principles of practice that have proven successful with majority and minority at-risk students in a variety of teaching and learning settings over several decades. Each standard is accompanied by a set of indicators and illustrated with examples from classrooms.


Research Report 3

Becoming Bilingual in the Amigos Two-Way Immersion Program

Mary T. Cazabon, Elena Nicoladis, & Wallace E. Lambert (1998)

This report examines students’ attitudes, both through their school achievement in Spanish and English and through their responses to questionnaires, toward becoming bilingual in the Amigos two-way immersion program. Many students in grades 4-8 understand the importance of and enjoy becoming bilingual. Through exposure to the two cultures, many have also developed a sense of biculturality. This report extends earlier studies of the Amigos Program published by the National Center for Research on Cultural Diversity and Second Language Learning.


Research Report 2

Scaling up School Restructuring in Multicultural, Multilingual Contexts: Early Observations from Sunland County

Sam Stringfield, Amanda Datnow, & Steven M. Ross (1998)

This report examines 13 culturally and linguistically diverse elementary schools, each of which is implementing one of six externally developed school restructuring designs. The report describes the initial successes and challenges these schools are experiencing as they adapt the designs to suit their students’ needs, and identifies the conditions that facilitate and hinder implementation.


Research Report 1

From At-Risk to Excellence: Research, Theory, and Principles for Practice

Roland Tharp (1997)

CREDE’s first research report describes the research agenda for this federally-funded center which focuses on linguistically and culturally diverse learners and students at risk for educational failure. By summarizing findings from previous investigations that examined effective educational programs for these learners, and studies of effective educational reform in general, Tharp sets out principles for school reform. These include recommendations for conceptualizing curricula and instruction in the experience and skills of the learners’ homes and communities, challenging students toward cognitive complexity, and developing language and literacy competence through all instructional activities.