Pre-Speech Pathology and Audiology at UH Mānoa
Text compiled from the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) website, the American Medical Association’s Health Professions Career and Education Directory, 2012-2013, and the UHM 2015-2016 Catalog.
Communication Sciences and Disorders Degree Program in Hawai`i:
Master of Science in Communication Sciences and Disorders (emphasis in Speech-Language Pathology) from the University of Hawai`i at UH Mānoa, John A. Burns School of Medicine, Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders
The Bachelor of Science in Communication Sciences and Disorders (or Speech Pathology and Audiology) and the Master of Science with emphasis in Audiology are no longer offered at UH Mānoa.
Audiologists address problems with hearing, balance, and related ear problems as a result of birth trauma, viral infections, genetic disorders, exposure to loud noise, medications, or aging. Aural rehabilitation often includes counseling, training in the use of hearing instruments, and teaching communication strategies.
Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) address problems with speech production, rhythm and fluency, vocal quality, and cognitive impairment as a result of stroke, brain injury, cerebral palsy, cleft palate, developmental delays, mental retardation, hearing impairment, or emotional problems. They also address swallowing difficulties and work with people who wish to improve their communication skills, by modifying an accent, for example.
Although some specialize, most Audiologists and SLPs treat a wide variety of people, from infants to senior citizens, and often collaborate with other professionals, such as teachers, physicians, social workers, and psychologists. Some Audiologists measure noise levels, develop ways to protect people’s hearing, and conduct hearing protection programs in communities or industry.
Most Audiologists and SLPs work in programs, medical centers, hospitals, and rehabilitation centers. Some work in public or private practice or in administration, and a few go into research or education.
For more information on job outlook, click here.
Related Careers: speech and hearing sciences, counseling, education.
Speech-Language Pathology Programs
Years of Schooling Required to Become a Speech-Language Pathologist:
~7 years of education
- Undergraduate Preparation (~4 years);
- Speech-Language Pathology Program (~2 years);
- Clinical Fellowship (1 year).
Although not all schools list a bachelor’s degree as a requirement for admission, few students are admitted without one. Completing a bachelor’s degree is highly recommended. Admission to speech pathology programs is highly competitive, and a bachelor’s degree significantly strengthens a student’s application and provides students with greater options for advancement and career opportunities. For help choosing a major, please see the “Choosing a Major for Professional Schools in Health” webpage.
Upon completion of a speech-language pathology program, students are awarded a master’s degree such as the Master of Arts (MA) or Master of Science (MS) in SLP, among others. All master’s-level SLP degrees are equivalent with respect to licensure and professional practice.
Many schools offer bachelor’s degrees in CSD, which are intended to prepare students for graduate-level CSD programs but are not required by all SLP programs. Two schools currently offer a clinical doctorate, either the Doctor of Clinical Science (CScD) or Doctor of Speech-Language Pathology (SLPD), which include additional semesters of study in areas such as clinical practice, research, and administration. Students interested in research can pursue a Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) in SLP, either in place of or in addition to the clinical master’s, or can complete only the Master of Science (MS) with a research focus.
What to Expect in an SLP Program
After graduation, students complete a Clinical Fellowship Year (CFY) at an approved setting, and take the Praxis examination, administered by Educational Testing Services (ETS). Praxis scores are submitted to the national American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) as part of the application for ASHA’s Certificate of Clinical Competence (CCC-SLP for Speech-Language Pathology).
The Licensing Examination(s)
Most states require SLPs to be licensed by ASHA, and some require a state teaching certificate to work in the schools. To become licensed in Hawai`i, you must complete an accredited graduate-level degree and the CFY, obtain national ASHA certification, and then take a written state examination. To maintain certification, SLPs must pay an annual certification fee and meet ASHA re-certification requirements. All speech-language pathologists must be licensed to practice.
Years of Schooling Required to Become an Audiologist
~8 years of education:
- Undergraduate Preparation (~4 years);
- Audiology School (4 years)
Although not all schools list a bachelor’s degree as a requirement for admission, few students are admitted without one. Completing a bachelor’s degree is highly recommended. Admission to audiology schools is highly competitive, and a bachelor’s degree significantly strengthens a student’s application and provides students with greater options for advancement and career opportunities.
Upon completion of audiology school, students are awarded the Doctor of Audiology (AuD).
Many schools offer bachelor’s degrees in CSD, which are intended to prepare students for graduate-level CSD programs but are not required by all audiology programs. Students interested in research can choose to pursue a Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) in Audiology, either in place of or in addition to the AuD.
The Licensing Examination(s)
Most states require audiologists to be licensed by ASHA, and some require a state teaching certificate to work in the schools. To become licensed in Hawai`i, you must complete an accredited doctoral-level degree, obtain national ASHA certification, and then take a written state examination. To maintain certification, audiologists must pay an annual certification fee and meet ASHA re-certification requirements. All audiologists must be licensed to practice.
The most commonly required courses for CSD programs (audiology or speech-language pathology) include:
|Physical Science||PHYS 100, CHEM 161 (physics or chemistry)||3 cr.|
|Biological Science||BIOL 171, ZOOL 100, PHYL 103, PHYL 141 (should emphasize a content area related to human or animal science – e.g. biology, human anatomy and physiology, neuroanatomy and neurophysiology, human genetics, veterinary science)||3 cr.|
|Statistics/Math||PSY/SOCS 225, EDEP 429, ECON 321||3 cr.|
|Psychology||PSY 100||3 cr.|
|Social/Behavioral Sciences||PSY 220, 240, 250, 270; SOC 100; ANTH 152 (additional courses in psychology (e.g. developmental, abnormal, clinical, social, behavioral or physiological), or sociology, anthropology, or public health)||3 cr.|
These courses are also required for ASHA certification and licensure.
Graduate programs usually require an undergraduate degree in CSD. Students without an undergraduate degree in communication sciences and disorders may be required to complete CSD specific prerequisite courses, which may include:
|General CSD Prerequisites||Examples||Credits|
|Anatomy and Physiology of the Speech and Hearing Mechanism||CSD 431||3 cr.|
|Phonetics||CSD 432||3 cr.|
|Speech and Language Development||CSD 433||3 cr.|
|Acoustics and Psychoacoustics of Speech and Hearing||CSD 434||3 cr.|
|Introduction to Communication Sciences and Disorders||CSD 436||3 cr.|
|Introduction to Audiometry and Auditory Disorders||CSD 437||3 cr.|
|Clinical Observation Hours||Varies*|
*Clinical Observation Hours can be earned through an approved course or an online course that delivers observation hours through videos, it varies from school to school.
CSD specific prerequisite courses can be completed through University of Hawaii’s Prerequisite Certification Program. Click here for more information
Experience and Personal Development
Gaining experience in the health professional field in which you are interested is a huge benefit in figuring out if that is the field you want to work in and provides you with a deeper understanding of the field. Some professional schools want to see that you have experience in their field and some schools may require a large amount of particular experience such as hands-on, patient contact experience or experience shadowing a professional in that field. Schools need to be certain that the students they accept are capable of completing the curriculum and are likely to become strong professionals in the field. Schools may see this through the experiences students had.
Admissions committees seek students who have completed the pre-requisites, have high overall and science/math GPAs, performed well on the entrance exam, and have balanced course loads which are challenging yet realistic. These are indications that students are capable of completing the curriculum. Opportunities for exam preparation can be found here: Entrance Exam Preparation Opportunities.
Experiences can provide proof that students will likely be strong practitioners. Admission committees seek students who demonstrated empathy, compassion, and a commitment to public service which can be shown through community service or volunteer work. Committees also want to see high ethical and moral standards and a conscientious work ethic as well as demonstrated maturity through judgement, responsibility, and dependability. Work ethics can be shown through employment opportunities.
Committees seek students who understand the field and what it entails. Different experiences that could provide exposure to the field include enrichment opportunities, internships, shadowing, or volunteering. Through experiences students may show that they have excellent communication skills and a high degree of professionalism in all aspects of life, and potentially gain strong letters of recommendation from supervisors.
Students should aim to have a well-rounded life that balances academics which include a broad liberal arts education with the humanities and social sciences, research, social activities, and personal interests (hobbies, skills, sports, etc.) through Clubs and Organizations.
Students may choose to take a gap year after they graduate with their undergraduate degree to gain more experience. When deciding to take a gap year, see our Taking a Gap Year page.
When applying for professional school, you will be asked to list and describe the experiences you have gained in preparation for the profession of your interest. Rather than having to recall from memory all your experiences, having an experience log will allow you to fill out your application with more ease. Students can use their C.V. as a record of these experiences. However, an experience log can include additional beneficial information, such as your employer’s contact information and a reflection portion of what you learned. You may choose to make a personalized experience log or use our sample by clicking here.
Please click on the following links to explore the different opportunities.
- Clubs and Organizations
- Community Service
- Entrance Exam Preparation
There are currently about 261 accredited master’s-level SLP programs and 74 accredited doctoral-level audiology programs in the US, each unique in its mission, philosophy, criteria, and strengths. Students can research programs using EdFind, a service of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA).
Although there are resources that “rank” schools, the rankings are rarely pertinent for individual applicant or specific programs. More important is whether there is a good match between applicant and school.
To find schools that are good a fit for you (PAC peer advisors can help with this process):
- Assess your individual strengths and weaknesses, your professional interests, learning style, and personality;
- Start by considering all schools, which usually includes all schools;
- Create your “Long List” by omitting the schools that do not match your professional interests, learning style, and personality;
- Once you have your GRE scores, create your “Short List” by categorizing the schools into ‘Reach’, ‘Match’, and ‘Safety’, ranking the schools by preference, and finally choosing how many schools to apply to. Be sure to apply to schools in all 3 categories (“Reach,” “Match,” and “Safety.”) and to select schools that you would really want to attend if/when accepted.
Here is more information on researching and selecting schools to apply for. If possible, visit the schools to see their facilities, talk to admissions directors, and chat with students.
Preparation: Your most important preparation for the GRE is your undergraduate courses, many of which sharpen your writing and verbal reasoning skills. Remember that the verbal sections are not only the most accurate predictor of how well you will do in CSD programs, but also the most difficult scores to improve.
GRE Summary: The GRE assesses your knowledge and skills in Verbal Reasoning, Analytical Writing, and Quantitative Reasoning. The test requires approximately 3 hours and 45 minutes to complete. The GRE is offered in computer-based and paper-based formats, and is offered year-round for computer-based administrations and up to three times per year for paper-based administrations.
GRE Scoring: The Verbal and Quantitative sections each receive a score between 130 and 170, in 1-point increments. The Analytical Writing section is scored on a scale of 0 to 6, in half-point increments. GRE scores are often reported as percentiles, with the median score (50th percentile) among examinees being 150 for the Verbal and Quantitative sections and 3.5 for the Analytical Writing section. Scores at around the 50th percentile or higher are considered competitive for CSD programs.
Official Test Preparation Material
- GRE Overview
- The Official Guide to the GRE revised General Test, from ETS
- Practice Questions on the GRE website
- FREE Diagnostic Exam on the GRE website
Commercial Test Preparation Companies
- Gale Courses
- Offered through the Hawai’i State Public Library System, free test prep courses with a Hawai’i State Library Card.
- Princeton Review
- NextStep Test Prep
Here is more information on how to prepare for an entrance exam.
1. Primary applications must be filed with the Communication Sciences and Disorders Centralized Application Service (CSDCAS), which is a centralized application system. Once the application is complete, CSDCAS forwards it to whichever schools the student has designated. The CSDCAS application fee is about $125 for the first program and $50 for each additional program designation. For schools with rolling admission, submit your primary application as early as possible.
2. Secondary applications are specific to individual schools, and are sent to applicants after receiving the CSDCAS application. Some but not all schools screen applicants before requesting secondary applications. Secondary applications commonly request additional information, essays, letters of recommendation, and/or fees.
Note: Most CSD programs participate in CSDCAS. Students interested in applying to other programs must complete each of their prospective schools’ individual applications. For these schools, the application process consist only of steps 2 and 3.
3. Interviews: After reviewing the primary and secondary applications, some CSD programs invite promising applicants for an interview. An online (e.g. Skype, Google Chat) interview for the promising applicants is required as part of the final selection process for the University of Hawai`i CSD program. Applicants are responsible for all costs incurred while interviewing, including airfare, lodging, ground transportation, professional attire, and meals. For sample interview questions click here.
Re-applicants: Many applicants may not be admitted to the professional school that they desire on their first try. However, if an when you choose to re-apply, there are many things to consider before re-submitting another application the following cycle. For more information on how to improve your application, click here.
- The more you know about the school, the better your chances of being accepted.
- Contact individual schools’ admissions offices to find out how they handle:
- Advanced placement (AP) credits
- International Baccalaureate (IB) credits
- College-Level Examination Program (CLEP) credits
- military credits
- courses taken at a community college
- non-US coursework
- courses taken for credit/no credit instead of a grade
- residency issues
- time limits on prerequisite science courses
UH Manoa's CSD Program Specific Information
UHM’s CSD program accepts up to 14 students in the Fall semester of each year. Requirements include:
Grade Point Average (GPA): All students potentially entering the graduate program must have a minimum GPA of 3.0. The average GPA of recently enrolled students is 3.44. The minimum grade in any prerequisite course is a B-.
Applicants must submit one official transcript to the Communication Sciences and Disorders Centralized Application Service (CSDCAS) and to the University of Hawai`i at Mānoa’s Office of Graduate Education, regardless of number or credits or length of time attended, including any study abroad or exchange programs, summer programs, non-degree work and extension programs. Official transcripts must be received directly from the institution.
GRE Scores: Upon completion of the GRE, scores must be sent to UHM by designating “University of Hawai`i at Mānoa” as a recipient; UHM’s institution code is 4867.
It should be noted that recently enrolled graduate students have the following average percentiles on their GRE prior to admission to the program:
- Verbal: 55th percentile
- Quantitative: 40th percentile
- Analytical: 39th percentile
Application Process: UHM’s CSD program participates in CSDCAS. Students must submit two separate applications and two separate application fees: one to CSDCAS (along with its application fee), AND one to UHM’s Office of Graduate Education(along with its application fee). Complete applications to both CSDCAS and UHM’s Office of Graduate Education must be submitted with appropriate fees by the January 15 deadline.
Personal Statement and Letters of Recommendation: A personal statement and three letters of recommendation must be submitted to the Communication Sciences and Disorders Centralized Application Service (CSDCAS) by January 15. It is advisable to obtain letters of recommendations from professors or clinicians within the field of CSD.
We understand that other factors (such as undergraduate GPA, PB GPA, letters of recommendation, personal statement, and previous work experience) also play important roles in determining a student’s success. Therefore, GRE is not the most decisive factor in our selection committee.
The above being said, if your GRE percentiles fall well below the previous averages, unless other aspects of your profile are exceptional, it is unlikely that your application will be considered favorably in the screening and selection process.
Note: Since scores may take up to several weeks to be reported, plan your test date accordingly before the application deadline of January 15.
An invitation for an interview will be given to the top 15% of the applicant pool. The applicants who received an interview invitation will have a greater chance in getting accepted into the program. Those who are accepted have up to the summer before entering the program to complete all prerequisites.
Communication Sciences and Disorders Department
University of Hawai`i at Mānoa, John A. Burns School of Medicine
677 Ala Moana Blvd., Suite 625
Honolulu, HI 96813
For more information, visit http://manoa.hawaii.edu/csd/students and read through the website thoroughly prior to e-mailing or calling the department.
|Associations||National Student Speech-Language and Hearing Association (NSSLHA)
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA)
Hawai`i Speech-Language-Hearing Association (HSHA)
|Entrance Exams||Graduate Record Examination (GRE)|
|Researching Schools||Edfind – ASHA SPA Schools Database|
|Applications||Communication Science and Disorders Centralized Application Service (CSDCAS)|
|Programs in Hawaii||University of Hawai`i at Mānoa, John A. Burns School of Medicine, Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders|
|Financial Aid||Financial Aid (ASHA Website)|
|Current Opportunities||Health – Current Opportunities|
|Engagement||Health – Clubs and Organizations|