Pre-Optometry at UH Mānoa
Text compiled from the Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry (ASCO) website, the National Board of Examiners in Optometry (NBEO) website, NAAHP’s Medical Professions Admission Guide: Strategy for Success, and the UHM 2013-2014 Catalog.
Optometry Programs in Hawai`i: None
Optometrists are primary health care providers who examine, diagnose, treat, and manage diseases and disorders of the eyes and related structures. In addition to prescribing and fitting prescription glasses and contact lenses, optometrists diagnose diseases and prescribe medications.
Optometry also offers a variety of fields for specialization. Vision therapy allows children to overcome learning problems caused by vision deficiencies and to develop perception skills necessary for reading and writing. Low vision rehabilitation provides sophisticated devices for those once classified as legally blind. Sports vision goes beyond vision screening to teach vision skills that improve athletic performance. Optometrists also help set safe vision standards in industry and in the licensing of drivers.
Optometrists work as members of an eye health care team, which also includes opticians, ophthalmologists, and other physicians. Opticians fit, supply, and adjust eyewear prescribed by optometrists or ophthalmologists. Ophthalmologists are medical doctors (MDs or DOs) specializing in the diagnosis and treatment of eye diseases and defects, including surgery. Many systemic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, and arteriosclerosis are often first detected during eye examinations, and optometrists frequently refer patients to physicians for further treatment.
Most optometrists work in private practice, either solo, in an associate partnership, or as part of a group. An associate partnership consists of a new optometrist practicing alongside an established optometrist, thus avoiding the initial capital investment costs. When the established optometrist retires, the younger optometrist then buys the practice. A group practice consists of two or more optometrists working in the same office, sharing costs and supplementing each other’s specialties.
Optometrists also work in health maintenance organizations (HMOs) and public health organizations; conduct clinical research for corporations; serve in government services such as the armed forces; act as consultants to industry, education, sports, and the government; or teach and conduct research in higher education.
Related Careers: optician, ophthalmology (MD or DO).
Becoming an optometrist requires 8+ years of education:
Undergraduate Preparation (~4 years);
Optometry School (4 years);
Residency (1+ year, optional).
Although not all schools list a bachelor’s degree as a requirement for admission, few students are admitted without one. Completing a bachelor’s degree is highly recommended. Admission to optometry schools is highly competitive, and a bachelor’s degree significantly strengthens a student’s application and provides students with greater options for advancement and career opportunities.
Upon graduation from optometry school, students are awarded the Doctor of Optometry (OD).
Many optometry schools offer combined degree programs: OD/PhD to combine optometry with research; OD/MPH to combine optometry with public health; and so on. Combined degrees can be offered concurrently, sequentially, or in combination, and often extend the number of years in medical school.
The first two years of optometry school usually consist of classroom lectures and laboratories in the basic health and visual sciences. The last two years are usually spent studying diagnostic and treatment techniques in clinical settings. After graduation, licensed optometrists who desire advanced training or specialization can choose to complete a residency.
The National Boards is a three-part examination developed by the National Board of Examiners in Optometry (NBEO) for optometry licensure in the United States. Students complete Part I in the spring of their third year in optometry school, and Parts II and III in their fourth year. In addition, OD graduates may also need to complete other requirements, depending on the state in which they intend to practice. All optometrists must be licensed to practice.
Prerequisites for Admission
Most importantly, remember that requirements vary from school to school! The following UHM courses are commonly required for admission to optometry schools:
|BIOL 171/171L and 172/172L||Introduction to Biology I and II||8 cr.|
|CHEM 161/161L and 162/162L||General Chemistry I and II||8 cr.|
|CHEM 272/272L and 273/273L||Organic Chemistry I and II||9 cr.|
|PHYS 170/170L and 272/272L||General Physics I and II*||9 cr.|
|MATH 215 and 216|
(or MATH 241 and 242)
|Applied Calculus I and II|
(or Calculus I and II)
|7 or 8 cr.|
(or BIOC 441)
|ENG 100 and higher||Composition I and higher||6 cr.|
|PSY 100 and higher||Survey of Psychology and higher||6 cr.|
|MICR 130/140L |
(or MICR 351/351L)
(or Biology of Microorganisms)
|PSY/SOCS 225 or ECON 321||Statistics||3 cr.|
Additional requirements may include human anatomy and physiology, communicology, computer literacy, and upper division biology. It is also recommended that non-science majors take additional upper-division or advanced science electives beyond the prerequisites listed above.
*Although most, if not all optometry programs accept trigonometry-based physics (PHYS 151/L and 152/L), calculus-based physics (PHYS 170/L and 272/L) is recommended to prepare for the OAT and for optometry school.
What makes a strong candidate?
Schools need to be certain that the students they accept are capable of completing the optometry curriculum and are likely to become good optometrists.
Are you capable of completing the optometry curriculum?
Admissions committees seek students who have:
- completed the prerequisites
- a high overall GPA
- a high science/math GPA
- performed well on the OAT
- balanced their course load so it is challenging yet realistic
Are you likely to become a good optometrist?
Admissions committees seek students who have:
- demonstrated empathy, compassion, and a commitment to public service
- high ethical and moral standards and a conscientious work ethic
- demonstrated maturity (judgment, responsibility, dependability)
- a broad liberal arts education that includes the humanities and social sciences
- experience in the field and with what medicine entails
- a well-rounded life that balances academics, community service, social activities, and personal interests (hobbies, skills, sports, etc.)
- excellent oral and written communication skills
- strong letters of recommendation
There are currently about 20 accredited optometry schools in the US, each unique in its mission, philosophy, criteria, and strengths. Students can research schools using the Schools and Colleges of Optometry Admission Requirements (SCOAR).
Although there are resources that rank schools, the rankings are rarely pertinent for individual applicants. More important is whether there is a good match between applicant and school.
To find schools that are good a fit for you (PAC peer advisors can help with this process):
- Assess your individual strengths and weaknesses, your professional interests, learning style, and personality;
- Start by considering all schools, which usually includes all 20 schools;
- Create your “Long List” by omitting the schools that do not match your professional interests, learning style, and personality;
- Once you have your OAT scores, use your GPA and OAT scores to create your “Short List” by categorizing the schools into “Reach,” “Match,” and “Safety”, ranking the schools by preference, and finally choosing how many schools to apply to. Be sure to apply to schools in all three categories (‘Reach’, ‘Match’, and ‘Safety’).
If possible, visit schools to see their facilities, talk to admissions directors, and talk to students.
All optometry programs require applicants to take a standardized test called the Optometry Admission Test (OAT).
Preparation: Your most important preparation for the OAT is your undergraduate courses, many of which sharpen your writing and verbal reasoning skills. Remember that your Reading Comprehension score is not only the most accurate predictor of how well you will do in optometry school, but also the most difficult score to improve.
OAT Summary: The OAT assesses your knowledge in the Natural Sciences (biology, inorganic, and organic chemistry), Physics (including optics), Reading Comprehension, and Quantitative Reasoning (including probability, statistics, and trigonometry).
OAT Scoring: Each section receives a score between 200 and 400. Eight standard scores are reported: biology, general chemistry, organic chemistry, physics, reading comprehension, quantitative reasoning, total science (comprising biology, general and organic chemistry, and physics), and an academic average (comprising all sections). The mean score among examinees (academic average) is 300; scores of 320 or higher are considered competitive for optometry schools.
Official Test Preparation Material:
- Sample Test by OAT Program
The Application Process
There are three general steps in applying to optometry schools: the primary application, the secondary application, and the interview.
1. Primary applications must be filed with the Optometry Centralized Application Service (OptomCAS), which is a centralized application system. This application includes: biographical data, academic history, letters of recommendation, work experience, extracurricular experience, and a personal statement. Once the application is complete, OptomCAS forwards it to whichever schools the student has designated.
2. Secondary applications or supplementary forms are specific to individual optometry schools; schools send these to applicants after they have received the OptomCAS application. Both frequently request additional information, essays, and letters of recommendation. Some schools screen applicants before the applications or forms are sent out. However, secondary applications and supplementary forms differ in that the latter is not a formal application.
3. Interviews: After reviewing the primary and secondary applications (or supplementary forms), optometry schools invite promising applicants to interview. Applicants are responsible for all costs of interviewing, including airfare, lodging, ground transportation, professional attire, and meals.
WICHE: Hawai`i residents are eligible to participate in the Professional School Exchange Program (PSEP), a service of the Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education (WICHE). In a competitive process, PSEP selects applicants to receive financial support from state funds; the students who are selected pay subsidized tuition if they attend a participating program on the West Coast. WICHE applications become available in July and have a mid-October deadline.
Note: To be considered for this scholarship, you must apply one full year in advance of matriculation, generally in the summer of your application year.
- The more you know about the school, the better your chances of being accepted.
- Most application questions can be answered by reading the SCOAR.
- Contact individual schools’ admissions offices to find out how they handle:
- Advanced Placement (AP) credits
- International Baccalaureate (IB) credits
- College-Level Examination Program (CLEP) credits
- military credits
- courses taken at a community college
- non-US coursework
- courses taken for credit/no credit instead of a grade
- residency issues
- time limits on prerequisite science courses
UH Mānoa’s Pre-Health/Pre-Law Advising Center (PAC) has reference books, lists of volunteer opportunities, academic planning worksheets, and one-on-one advising by peers who can help you prepare for and apply to optometry school.
|UHM's Pre-Medical Association (PMA)||www.hawaii.edu/premed
|UHM's Health Occupations Students of America (HOSA)||manoa.hawaii.edu/rio/hosa/
|Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry (ASCO)||www.opted.org|
|Optometry Centralized Application Service (OptomCAS)||www.optomcas.org|
|Schools and Colleges of Optometry Admission Requirements (SCOAR) by ASCO||online|
|Optometry: A Career Guide by ASCO||available in PAC|
|Optometry Admission Test (OAT)||www.ada.org/oat/index.html|
|Optometry Admission Test Program||available free from ASCO|
|Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education (WICHE)||www.wiche.edu|
|American Optometric Association||www.aoanet.org|
|American Academy of Optometry Students||http://www.aaopt.org/students|
|Preparing for Graduate School by the Honors Program||http://preparingforgraduateschool.weebly.com/|