All research submissions must be accompanied by an abstract, which is a brief, concise summary of your work. Abstracts typically include an introduction, research/scholarly methods used, results (even if preliminary), and a conclusion.

  • Introduction: Include the research question/hypothesis and a brief background (if space permits).
  • Methods: Show the validity of the research by describing the design of the project. Include applicable information, such as the setting of the research, number of subjects and how they were selected, and methods used to measure/analyze the data.
  • Results: Summarize the findings.
  • Conclusion: State what can be concluded from the project and the implications of the research.

Additional guidance in writing your abstract may be found on this or this webpage. You may also visit journal archives for abstracts from previous submissions.

Follow these formatting guidelines when submitting your abstract:

  • Electronic submission via Microsoft Word and PDF.
    • File name: LastnameFirstinitial.Abstract (eg. WuS.Abstract.docx)
  • 250 words maximum (name and title are not included in word count)
  • Abbreviations/acronyms: at first mention of them in the abstract, spell out fully followed by the abbreviation in parenthesis. Example: University of Hawai’i at Mānoa (UHM). Use the abbreviation/acronym in your text thereafter.
  • Scientific names: note proper casing and italicization
  • Hawaiian/foreign words: include proper diacriticals (Mac or PC)
  • Don’t forget to proofread to make sure your abstract is free of spelling or grammatical errors!