Apply the OLP in these units http://manoa.hawaii.edu/sealearning/ en Structure to Function http://manoa.hawaii.edu/sealearning/grade-4/life-science/structure-function <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--title--topic-page.html.twig x field--node--title.html.twig * field--node--topic-page.html.twig * field--title.html.twig * field--string.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Structure to Function</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-display-title--topic-page.html.twig * field--node--field-display-title.html.twig * field--node--topic-page.html.twig * field--field-display-title.html.twig * field--string.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-display-title field--type-string field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Title</div> <div class="field__item"><h1>Structure to Function</h1> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--uid--topic-page.html.twig x field--node--uid.html.twig * field--node--topic-page.html.twig * field--uid.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'username' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> <span lang="" about="/sealearning/user/357" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">rnakama</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> </span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--created--topic-page.html.twig x field--node--created.html.twig * field--node--topic-page.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Mon, 04/09/2018 - 13:56</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-standards-ngss-pe--topic-page.html.twig * field--node--field-standards-ngss-pe.html.twig * field--node--topic-page.html.twig * field--field-standards-ngss-pe.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-standards-ngss-pe field--type-entity-reference field--label-above field--depth-1"> <div class="field__label">NGSS Performance Expectations</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/sealearning/taxonomy/term/799" hreflang="en">4-LS1-1 Construct an argument that plants and animals have internal and external structures that function to support survival, growth, behavior, and reproduction.</a></div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-standards-ngss-pe-linking---topic-page.html.twig * field--node--field-standards-ngss-pe-linking-.html.twig * field--node--topic-page.html.twig * field--field-standards-ngss-pe-linking-.html.twig x field--text-long.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-standards-ngss-pe-linking- field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p><em>Clarification Statement</em>: Examples of structures could include thorns, stems, roots, colored petals, heart, stomach, lung, brain, and skin.</p> <p> </p> <p><em>Assessment Boundary</em>: Assessment is limited to macroscopic structures within plant and animal systems.</p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-standards-olp--topic-page.html.twig * field--node--field-standards-olp.html.twig * field--node--topic-page.html.twig * field--field-standards-olp.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-standards-olp field--type-entity-reference field--label-above field--depth-2"> <div class="field__label">Ocean Literacy Principles</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/sealearning/taxonomy/term/399" hreflang="en">OLP 5: The ocean supports a great diversity of life and ecosystems</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/sealearning/taxonomy/term/426" hreflang="en">OLP 5.D</a></div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-toc--topic-page.html.twig * field--node--field-toc.html.twig * field--node--topic-page.html.twig * field--field-toc.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-toc field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Table of Contents</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/sealearning/table-contents/structure-function" hreflang="en">Structure to Function</a></div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-representative-image--topic-page.html.twig * field--node--field-representative-image.html.twig * field--node--topic-page.html.twig * field--field-representative-image.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-representative-image field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Representative Image</div> <div class="field__item"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'media' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * media--source-image.html.twig * media--image--none-original-size-.html.twig * media--image.html.twig * media--none-original-size-.html.twig x media.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/media.html.twig' --> <article class="media media--type-image media--view-mode-none-original-size-"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--media--field-media-image--image.html.twig * field--media--field-media-image.html.twig * field--media--image.html.twig * field--field-media-image.html.twig * field--image.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-media-image field--type-image field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Image</div> <div class="field__item"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-formatter.html.twig' --> <a href="/sealearning/sites/default/files/4LS_T1_Thumbnail.png"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/image.html.twig' --> <img loading="lazy" src="/sealearning/sites/default/files/4LS_T1_Thumbnail.png" width="147" height="67" typeof="foaf:Image" /> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/image.html.twig' --> </a> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-formatter.html.twig' --> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/field.html.twig' --> </article> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/media.html.twig' --> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--comment-node-topic-page--topic-page.html.twig * field--node--comment-node-topic-page.html.twig * field--node--topic-page.html.twig * field--comment-node-topic-page.html.twig x field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--comment.html.twig' --> <section class="field field--name-comment-node-topic-page field--type-comment field--label-hidden comment-wrapper"> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--comment.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--body--topic-page.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--topic-page.html.twig * field--body.html.twig x field--text-with-summary.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-with-summary.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'filter_caption' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content-edit/filter-caption.html.twig' --> <figure role="group" class="caption caption-drupal-entity"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'entity_embed_container' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/entity-embed-container.html.twig' --> <div class="action-background"> <div id="node-1857" class="node node-activity-page special-feature-type-activity contextual-links-region clearfix special-feature-type- " data-embed-button="node" data-entity-embed-display="entity_reference:entity_reference_label" data-entity-embed-display-settings="{&quot;link&quot;:1}" data-entity-type="node" data-entity-uuid="12aafe30-8e3e-483a-818c-6096ddcd7ce1" data-langcode="und"> <div class="embed-type-marker"><i class="icon white"></i></div> <div class="embed-supertitle">ACTIVITY</div> <h2 class="embed-title"> <a target="_blank" href="/sealearning/grade-4/life-science/structure-function/activity-structure-function-hungry-reef-fish" hreflang="und">Structure to Function: Hungry Reef Fish</a> </h2> <div class="field-item even"><p></p></div> <div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/entity-embed-container.html.twig' --> </div></div><figcaption>This activity builds on the content below.</figcaption></figure><!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content-edit/filter-caption.html.twig' --><br /></p><h2>Structure and Function</h2> <p>A central feature of life is that organisms grow, reproduce, and die. Organisms have unique characteristic structures, functions, and behaviors. Coral reefs are ecosystems that provide examples of specific <a href="#Adaptations Vocabulary">structures</a>, or body designs, that serve designated functions. The reef  structure creates numerous and varying habitats that allow a variety of organisms to exist and fulfill roles, or <a href="#Adaptations Vocabulary">niche</a>s, in the reef community. Fish and other animals in the reef habitat have evolved various feeding methods and body structures that allow them to survive and thrive in reef environments. </p> <p> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'filter_caption' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content-edit/filter-caption.html.twig' --> <figure role="group" class="caption caption-drupal-entity"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'entity_embed_container' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/entity-embed-container.html.twig' --> <div class="action-background"> <div id="node-1861" class="node node-special-feature-page special-feature-type-further-investigations contextual-links-region clearfix special-feature-type- " data-embed-button="node" data-entity-embed-display="entity_reference:entity_reference_label" data-entity-embed-display-settings="{&quot;link&quot;:1}" data-entity-type="node" data-entity-uuid="2aace5cf-02de-42fc-a69c-39ce573539a1" data-langcode="und"> <div class="embed-type-marker"><i class="icon white"></i></div> <div class="embed-supertitle">FURTHER INVESTIGATIONS</div> <h2 class="embed-title"> <a target="_blank" href="/sealearning/grade-4/life-science/structure-function/further-investigations-fish-life" hreflang="und">Fish Life</a> </h2> <div class="field-item even"><p></p></div> <div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/entity-embed-container.html.twig' --> </div></div><figcaption>To learn more about fish life in general, check out these additional resources!</figcaption></figure><!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content-edit/filter-caption.html.twig' --><br /></p><hr /><h2>Reef Fish Feeding</h2> <p> </p> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'media' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * media--source-image.html.twig * media--image--half-page.html.twig * media--image.html.twig * media--half-page.html.twig x media.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/media.html.twig' --> <article class="align-right media media--type-image media--view-mode-half-page" title="&lt;p&gt;Image courtesy of Andrew Gray/NOAA,&amp;nbsp;&lt;a data-cke-saved-href=&quot;https://www.flickr.com/photos/papahanaumokuakea/37227769890&quot; href=&quot;https://www.flickr.com/photos/papahanaumokuakea/37227769890&quot;&gt;Flikr&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/p&gt;"><!-- THEME DEBUG --><!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --><!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--media--field-media-image--image.html.twig * field--media--field-media-image.html.twig * field--media--image.html.twig * field--field-media-image.html.twig * field--image.html.twig x field.html.twig --><!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/field.html.twig' --><div class="field field--name-field-media-image field--type-image field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Image</div> <div class="field__item"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-formatter.html.twig' --> <a href="/sealearning/sites/default/files/4LS_Reef_Fish.jpg"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image_style' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-style.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/image.html.twig' --> <div class="imgpost"> <span class="img-overlay-lightbox"></span> <img loading="lazy" src="/sealearning/sites/default/files/styles/half_page/public/4LS_Reef_Fish.jpg?itok=jgbsO5Lq" width="400" height="267" alt="&lt;p&gt;Fig. 1. Reef ecosystems provide complex structures for fish to live in, around, or atop. Specialized feeding strategies help each fish survive in this competetive environment.&amp;nbsp;&lt;/p&gt;" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-half-page" /></div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-style.html.twig' --> </a> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-formatter.html.twig' --> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--media--field-media-alttext--image.html.twig * field--media--field-media-alttext.html.twig * field--media--image.html.twig * field--field-media-alttext.html.twig x field--text-long.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-media-alttext field--type-text-long field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Image caption</div> <div class="field__item"><p>Fig. 1. Reef ecosystems provide complex structures for fish to live in, around, or atop. Specialized feeding strategies help each fish survive in this competetive environment. </p> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--media--field-media-titletext--image.html.twig * field--media--field-media-titletext.html.twig * field--media--image.html.twig * field--field-media-titletext.html.twig x field--text-long.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-media-titletext field--type-text-long field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Image copyright and source</div> <div class="field__item"><p>Image courtesy of Andrew Gray/NOAA, <a href="https://www.flickr.com/photos/papahanaumokuakea/37227769890">Flikr</a></p> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> </article><!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/media.html.twig' --><p>There are many sizes, shapes, and colors of reef fishes living in coral reef habitats (Fig. 1). Fishes have a variety of methods and adaptations for feeding, depending on the area of the reef they inhabit and the composition of their diet. Reef fishes live in areas above the reef, on the surface of the reef, in reef crevices and caves, and on the sandy bottom near the reef. Reef fishes often have special mouth features to help them feed—which they use to feed in specific style and eat a particular type of food.</p> <hr /><p><a href="#Adaptations Vocabulary">Herbivores</a> feed on marine plants called <a href="#Adaptations Vocabulary">algae</a>. Algae usually grow on the surface of the reef; some fishes even farm their own algae beds. Herbivores have mouth forms and teeth designed to scrape the algae off of rocks and coral. Reef fish that eat <a href="#Adaptations Vocabulary">zooplankton</a>, invertebrates, and other fish are called <a href="#Adaptations Vocabulary">carnivores</a>. Carnivores have unique mouth forms and teeth, depending on the type of animal they eat (Fig. 2).</p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'media' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * media--source-image.html.twig * media--image--half-page.html.twig * media--image.html.twig * media--half-page.html.twig x media.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/media.html.twig' --> <article class="align-right media media--type-image media--view-mode-half-page" title="&lt;p&gt;Image courtesy of &lt;a data-cke-saved-href=&quot;https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Largehead_hairtail.jpg&quot; href=&quot;https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Largehead_hairtail.jpg&quot;&gt;Wikimedia&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/p&gt;"><!-- THEME DEBUG --><!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --><!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--media--field-media-image--image.html.twig * field--media--field-media-image.html.twig * field--media--image.html.twig * field--field-media-image.html.twig * field--image.html.twig x field.html.twig --><!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/field.html.twig' --><div class="field field--name-field-media-image field--type-image field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Image</div> <div class="field__item"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-formatter.html.twig' --> <a href="/sealearning/sites/default/files/4LS_Barracuda.jpg"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image_style' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-style.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/image.html.twig' --> <div class="imgpost"> <span class="img-overlay-lightbox"></span> <img loading="lazy" src="/sealearning/sites/default/files/styles/half_page/public/4LS_Barracuda.jpg?itok=sffqv0aK" width="400" height="300" alt="&lt;p&gt;Fig. 2. The long teeth of the barracuda help this carnivore eat.&lt;/p&gt;" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-half-page" /></div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-style.html.twig' --> </a> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-formatter.html.twig' --> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--media--field-media-alttext--image.html.twig * field--media--field-media-alttext.html.twig * field--media--image.html.twig * field--field-media-alttext.html.twig x field--text-long.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-media-alttext field--type-text-long field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Image caption</div> <div class="field__item"><p>Fig. 2. The long teeth of the barracuda help this carnivore eat.</p> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--media--field-media-titletext--image.html.twig * field--media--field-media-titletext.html.twig * field--media--image.html.twig * field--field-media-titletext.html.twig x field--text-long.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-media-titletext field--type-text-long field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Image copyright and source</div> <div class="field__item"><p>Image courtesy of <a href="https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Largehead_hairtail.jpg">Wikimedia</a></p> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> </article><!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/media.html.twig' --><p>Some carnivores have small mouths useful for plucking zooplankton from the water column. Other carnivores have large mouths that help engulf their <a href="#Adaptations Vocabulary">prey</a>, allowing the fish to swallow its prey whole. Many carnivores have unique mouth features that help them feed in a particular area of the reef, or on a particular type of prey. For example, the longnose butterflyfish has a very long snout that helps it probe into deep crevices to find worms and other invertebrates (Fig. 3); the goatfish has structures hanging from its lower jaw (barbels) that help it dig in the sand to find invertebrates. </p> <p>Reef fish that are <a href="#Adaptations Vocabulary">omnivores</a> eat both algae and animals. Omnivorous fish do not have as specialized a diet as fishes that are strictly herbivores or carnivores. Omnivores are sometimes called generalists.</p> <hr /><h2>Feeding Structures</h2> <p>Some of the unique modifications in mouth shapes and body features found in common Hawaiian reef fishes are described below:</p> <h4><strong>Butterflyfishes (<em>Chaetodontidae</em>):</strong></h4> <p> </p> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'media' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * media--source-image.html.twig * media--image--half-page.html.twig * media--image.html.twig * media--half-page.html.twig x media.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/media.html.twig' --> <article class="align-left media media--type-image media--view-mode-half-page" title="&lt;p&gt;Image courtesy of &lt;a data-cke-saved-href=&quot;https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Longnose_Butterflyfish.jpg&quot; href=&quot;https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Longnose_Butterflyfish.jpg&quot;&gt;Wikimedia&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/p&gt;"><!-- THEME DEBUG --><!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --><!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--media--field-media-image--image.html.twig * field--media--field-media-image.html.twig * field--media--image.html.twig * field--field-media-image.html.twig * field--image.html.twig x field.html.twig --><!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/field.html.twig' --><div class="field field--name-field-media-image field--type-image field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Image</div> <div class="field__item"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-formatter.html.twig' --> <a href="/sealearning/sites/default/files/4LS_Butterfly_fish.jpg"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image_style' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-style.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/image.html.twig' --> <div class="imgpost"> <span class="img-overlay-lightbox"></span> <img loading="lazy" src="/sealearning/sites/default/files/styles/half_page/public/4LS_Butterfly_fish.jpg?itok=XJIOvreY" width="400" height="313" alt="&lt;p&gt;Fig. 3. The long nose of this butterfly fish allows it to crab food in small crevices.&lt;/p&gt;" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-half-page" /></div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-style.html.twig' --> </a> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-formatter.html.twig' --> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--media--field-media-alttext--image.html.twig * field--media--field-media-alttext.html.twig * field--media--image.html.twig * field--field-media-alttext.html.twig x field--text-long.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-media-alttext field--type-text-long field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Image caption</div> <div class="field__item"><p>Fig. 3. The long nose of this butterfly fish allows it to crab food in small crevices.</p> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--media--field-media-titletext--image.html.twig * field--media--field-media-titletext.html.twig * field--media--image.html.twig * field--field-media-titletext.html.twig x field--text-long.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-media-titletext field--type-text-long field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Image copyright and source</div> <div class="field__item"><p>Image courtesy of <a href="https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Longnose_Butterflyfish.jpg">Wikimedia</a></p> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> </article><!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/media.html.twig' --><p>These brightly colored reef fish have very short, small mouths that allow them to graze on algae growing on the reef. butterfly fishes also eat small invertebrates like coral polyps and anemones. Butterfly fishes are considered omnivores. However, some butterfly fish have very specialized, long snouts they use to reach into the coral and eat coral polyps (e.g., Longnose butterfly fish, lauwiliwilinukunukuoi‘oi) (Fig. 3).</p> <hr /><h4><strong>Damselfishes (<em>Pomacentridae</em>):</strong></h4> <p> </p> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'media' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * media--source-image.html.twig * media--image--half-page.html.twig * media--image.html.twig * media--half-page.html.twig x media.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/media.html.twig' --> <article class="align-left media media--type-image media--view-mode-half-page" title="&lt;p&gt;Image courtesy of &lt;a data-cke-saved-href=&quot;https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pomacentridae_-_Abudefduf_troschelii.JPG&quot; href=&quot;https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pomacentridae_-_Abudefduf_troschelii.JPG&quot;&gt;Wikimedia&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/p&gt;"><!-- THEME DEBUG --><!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --><!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--media--field-media-image--image.html.twig * field--media--field-media-image.html.twig * field--media--image.html.twig * field--field-media-image.html.twig * field--image.html.twig x field.html.twig --><!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/field.html.twig' --><div class="field field--name-field-media-image field--type-image field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Image</div> <div class="field__item"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-formatter.html.twig' --> <a href="/sealearning/sites/default/files/4LS_damsel_fish.JPG"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image_style' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-style.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/image.html.twig' --> <div class="imgpost"> <span class="img-overlay-lightbox"></span> <img loading="lazy" src="/sealearning/sites/default/files/styles/half_page/public/4LS_damsel_fish.JPG?itok=Q7M34W8R" width="400" height="301" alt="&lt;p&gt;Fig. 4. Damselfish have a slightly upturned and large mouth compared to their body size to slurp in plankton from the water.&lt;/p&gt;" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-half-page" /></div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-style.html.twig' --> </a> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-formatter.html.twig' --> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--media--field-media-alttext--image.html.twig * field--media--field-media-alttext.html.twig * field--media--image.html.twig * field--field-media-alttext.html.twig x field--text-long.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-media-alttext field--type-text-long field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Image caption</div> <div class="field__item"><p>Fig. 4. Damselfish have a slightly upturned and large mouth compared to their body size to slurp in plankton from the water.</p> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--media--field-media-titletext--image.html.twig * field--media--field-media-titletext.html.twig * field--media--image.html.twig * field--field-media-titletext.html.twig x field--text-long.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-media-titletext field--type-text-long field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Image copyright and source</div> <div class="field__item"><p>Image courtesy of <a href="https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pomacentridae_-_Abudefduf_troschelii.JPG">Wikimedia</a></p> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> </article><!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/media.html.twig' --><p>Damselfish are often found in small groups hovering right above the reef in search of tiny animals and plants floating in the plankton. They have short snouts but relatively big mouths that allow them to suck the plankton out of the water column (e.g., sergeant major fish, mamo, Fig. 4). Many damselfishes are also gardners of algae; the fish weed out algae they dislike and protect the algae they prefer to eat.</p> <hr /><h4><strong>Moray Eels (<em>Muraenidae</em>); puhi:</strong></h4> <p> </p> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'media' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * media--source-image.html.twig * media--image--half-page.html.twig * media--image.html.twig * media--half-page.html.twig x media.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/media.html.twig' --> <article class="align-left media media--type-image media--view-mode-half-page" title="&lt;p&gt;Image courtesy of&amp;nbsp;Betty Wills, &lt;a data-cke-saved-href=&quot;https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Spotted_Eel_Teeth.jpg&quot; href=&quot;https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Spotted_Eel_Teeth.jpg&quot;&gt;Wikimedia Commons&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/p&gt;"><!-- THEME DEBUG --><!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --><!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--media--field-media-image--image.html.twig * field--media--field-media-image.html.twig * field--media--image.html.twig * field--field-media-image.html.twig * field--image.html.twig x field.html.twig --><!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/field.html.twig' --><div class="field field--name-field-media-image field--type-image field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Image</div> <div class="field__item"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-formatter.html.twig' --> <a href="/sealearning/sites/default/files/4LS_Eel_teeth.jpg"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image_style' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-style.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/image.html.twig' --> <div class="imgpost"> <span class="img-overlay-lightbox"></span> <img loading="lazy" src="/sealearning/sites/default/files/styles/half_page/public/4LS_Eel_teeth.jpg?itok=cTiKrX2_" width="400" height="370" alt="&lt;p&gt;Fig. 5. Eels have rows of teeth to help them grab and hang on to speedy fish that swim by.&lt;/p&gt;" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-half-page" /></div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-style.html.twig' --> </a> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-formatter.html.twig' --> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--media--field-media-alttext--image.html.twig * field--media--field-media-alttext.html.twig * field--media--image.html.twig * field--field-media-alttext.html.twig x field--text-long.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-media-alttext field--type-text-long field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Image caption</div> <div class="field__item"><p>Fig. 5. Eels have rows of teeth to help them grab and hang on to speedy fish that swim by.</p> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--media--field-media-titletext--image.html.twig * field--media--field-media-titletext.html.twig * field--media--image.html.twig * field--field-media-titletext.html.twig x field--text-long.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-media-titletext field--type-text-long field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Image copyright and source</div> <div class="field__item"><p>Image courtesy of Betty Wills, <a href="https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Spotted_Eel_Teeth.jpg">Wikimedia Commons</a></p> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> </article><!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/media.html.twig' --><p>Eels are carnivorous <a href="#Adaptations Vocabulary">ambush predators</a> that wait in cracks and crevices in the reef to capture passing prey. Eels possess big sharp teeth and have large mouths (Fig. 5).</p> <hr /><h4><strong>Goatfishes (<em>Mullidae</em>); weke‘ā:</strong></h4> <p> </p> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'media' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * media--source-image.html.twig * media--image--half-page.html.twig * media--image.html.twig * media--half-page.html.twig x media.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/media.html.twig' --> <article class="align-left media media--type-image media--view-mode-half-page" title="&lt;p&gt;Image courtesy of Andrew Grey/&lt;a data-cke-saved-href=&quot;https://www.fisheries.noaa.gov/feature-story/how-are-coral-reef-fish-doing-hawaii&quot; href=&quot;https://www.fisheries.noaa.gov/feature-story/how-are-coral-reef-fish-doing-hawaii&quot;&gt;NOAA Fisheries&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/p&gt;"><!-- THEME DEBUG --><!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --><!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--media--field-media-image--image.html.twig * field--media--field-media-image.html.twig * field--media--image.html.twig * field--field-media-image.html.twig * field--image.html.twig x field.html.twig --><!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/field.html.twig' --><div class="field field--name-field-media-image field--type-image field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Image</div> <div class="field__item"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-formatter.html.twig' --> <a href="/sealearning/sites/default/files/4LS_Goatfish_School.jpg"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image_style' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-style.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/image.html.twig' --> <div class="imgpost"> <span class="img-overlay-lightbox"></span> <img loading="lazy" src="/sealearning/sites/default/files/styles/half_page/public/4LS_Goatfish_School.jpg?itok=hQbvoVUV" width="400" height="278" alt="&lt;p&gt;Fig. 6. A school of goatfish swim along the reefs in Niʻihau. When they feed, they scrounge the bottom sediment using the barbels on the bottom of their mouths.&lt;/p&gt;" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-half-page" /></div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-style.html.twig' --> </a> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-formatter.html.twig' --> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--media--field-media-alttext--image.html.twig * field--media--field-media-alttext.html.twig * field--media--image.html.twig * field--field-media-alttext.html.twig x field--text-long.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-media-alttext field--type-text-long field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Image caption</div> <div class="field__item"><p>Fig. 6. A school of goatfish swim along the reefs in Niʻihau. When they feed, they scrounge the bottom sediment using the barbels on the bottom of their mouths.</p> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--media--field-media-titletext--image.html.twig * field--media--field-media-titletext.html.twig * field--media--image.html.twig * field--field-media-titletext.html.twig x field--text-long.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-media-titletext field--type-text-long field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Image copyright and source</div> <div class="field__item"><p>Image courtesy of Andrew Grey/<a href="https://www.fisheries.noaa.gov/feature-story/how-are-coral-reef-fish-doing-hawaii">NOAA Fisheries</a></p> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> </article><!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/media.html.twig' --><p>Goatfishes have mouths on the bottom of their snouts. Goatfishes also have two <a href="#Adaptations Vocabulary">barbels</a>, or feelers, for tasting and searching the sandy bottom for worms and other soft-bodied invertebrates that live in the sand (Fig. 6).</p> <hr /><h4><strong>Parrotfishes (<em>Scaridae</em>); uhu:</strong></h4> <p> </p> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'media' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * media--source-image.html.twig * media--image--half-page.html.twig * media--image.html.twig * media--half-page.html.twig x media.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/media.html.twig' --> <article class="align-left media media--type-image media--view-mode-half-page" title="&lt;p&gt;Image courtesy of NOAA, &lt;a data-cke-saved-href=&quot;https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Corl0057_(27940742085).jpg&quot; href=&quot;https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Corl0057_(27940742085).jpg&quot;&gt;Wikimedia Commons&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/p&gt;"><!-- THEME DEBUG --><!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --><!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--media--field-media-image--image.html.twig * field--media--field-media-image.html.twig * field--media--image.html.twig * field--field-media-image.html.twig * field--image.html.twig x field.html.twig --><!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/field.html.twig' --><div class="field field--name-field-media-image field--type-image field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Image</div> <div class="field__item"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-formatter.html.twig' --> <a href="/sealearning/sites/default/files/4LS_Parrotfish.jpg"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image_style' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-style.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/image.html.twig' --> <div class="imgpost"> <span class="img-overlay-lightbox"></span> <img loading="lazy" src="/sealearning/sites/default/files/styles/half_page/public/4LS_Parrotfish.jpg?itok=PsgtWTo3" width="400" height="286" alt="&lt;p&gt;Fig. 7. This parrotfish from the North Western Hawaiian Islands has teeth-like structures that allow it to scrape algae off the substrate.&lt;/p&gt;" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-half-page" /></div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-style.html.twig' --> </a> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-formatter.html.twig' --> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--media--field-media-alttext--image.html.twig * field--media--field-media-alttext.html.twig * field--media--image.html.twig * field--field-media-alttext.html.twig x field--text-long.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-media-alttext field--type-text-long field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Image caption</div> <div class="field__item"><p>Fig. 7. This parrotfish from the North Western Hawaiian Islands has teeth-like structures that allow it to scrape algae off the substrate.</p> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--media--field-media-titletext--image.html.twig * field--media--field-media-titletext.html.twig * field--media--image.html.twig * field--field-media-titletext.html.twig x field--text-long.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-media-titletext field--type-text-long field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Image copyright and source</div> <div class="field__item"><p>Image courtesy of NOAA, <a href="https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Corl0057_(27940742085).jpg">Wikimedia Commons</a></p> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> </article><!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/media.html.twig' --><p>Parrotfishes have large teeth that are fused together and strong jaws to enable them to scrape algae and coral from the reef. Parrotfishes are primarily herbivores (Fig 7).</p> <p> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'filter_caption' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content-edit/filter-caption.html.twig' --> <figure role="group" class="caption caption-drupal-entity"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'entity_embed_container' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/entity-embed-container.html.twig' --> <div class="action-background"> <div id="node-2084" class="node node-attachment special-feature-type-teacher-guide contextual-links-region clearfix special-feature-type- " data-embed-button="node" data-entity-embed-display="entity_reference:entity_reference_label" data-entity-embed-display-settings="{&quot;link&quot;:1}" data-entity-type="node" data-entity-uuid="0b1fd1a9-3f00-4062-ab7b-2c76e12e9ab0" data-langcode="und"> <div class="embed-type-marker"><i class="icon white"></i></div> <div class="embed-supertitle">TEACHER GUIDE</div> <h2 class="embed-title"> <a target="_blank" href="http://manoa.hawaii.edu/sealearning/sites/default/files/Absurd%20Creature%20-%20Parrotfish_1.pdf">Absurd Creature: Parrotfish<div class="download-link"></div></a> </h2> <div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/entity-embed-container.html.twig' --> </div></div><figcaption><em>The above article from Wired showcases the absurdidites of the parrotfish adaptations for survival! See the original link below:</em><br /><br /><a href="https://www.wired.com/2014/08/absurd-creature-of-the-week-parrotfish/"><em>Absurd Creature of the Week: This Goofy Fish Poops out White-Sand Beaches by Matt Simon</em></a></figcaption></figure><!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content-edit/filter-caption.html.twig' --></p><p> </p> <hr /><h2>Body Structures for Defense</h2> <p>Life on a reef can be dangerous for many organisms—because there is always the chance that a predator may be lurking. The evolution of defense structures has resulted in many unique features that help reef organisms survive. Examples of defense structures in common Hawaiian reef fishes, and associated reef organisms, follow:</p> <hr /><p> </p> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'media' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * media--source-image.html.twig * media--image--third-page.html.twig * media--image.html.twig * media--third-page.html.twig x media.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/media.html.twig' --> <article class="align-left media media--type-image media--view-mode-third-page" title="&lt;p&gt;Image courtesy of Steve Ryan, &lt;a data-cke-saved-href=&quot;https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Whitespotted_Surgeonfish,_Acanthurus_guttatus_at_Honauma_Bay,_Oahu,_Hawaii.jpg&quot; href=&quot;https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Whitespotted_Surgeonfish,_Acanthurus_guttatus_at_Honauma_Bay,_Oahu,_Hawaii.jpg&quot;&gt;Wikimedia Commons&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/p&gt;"><!-- THEME DEBUG --><!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --><!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--media--field-media-image--image.html.twig * field--media--field-media-image.html.twig * field--media--image.html.twig * field--field-media-image.html.twig * field--image.html.twig x field.html.twig --><!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/field.html.twig' --><div class="field field--name-field-media-image field--type-image field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Image</div> <div class="field__item"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-formatter.html.twig' --> <a href="/sealearning/sites/default/files/4LS_Whitespotted_Surgeonfish%2C_Acanthurus_guttatus_at_Honauma_Bay%2C_Oahu%2C_Hawaii.jpg"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image_style' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-style.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/image.html.twig' --> <div class="imgpost"> <span class="img-overlay-lightbox"></span> <img loading="lazy" src="/sealearning/sites/default/files/styles/third_page/public/4LS_Whitespotted_Surgeonfish%2C_Acanthurus_guttatus_at_Honauma_Bay%2C_Oahu%2C_Hawaii.jpg?itok=XHoueuzX" width="254" height="169" alt="&lt;p&gt;Fig. 8. A whitespotted surgeonfish (at Hanauma Bay) has a hidden spine at the base of the body.&lt;/p&gt;" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-third-page" /></div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-style.html.twig' --> </a> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-formatter.html.twig' --> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--media--field-media-alttext--image.html.twig * field--media--field-media-alttext.html.twig * field--media--image.html.twig * field--field-media-alttext.html.twig x field--text-long.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-media-alttext field--type-text-long field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Image caption</div> <div class="field__item"><p>Fig. 8. A whitespotted surgeonfish (at Hanauma Bay) has a hidden spine at the base of the body.</p> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--media--field-media-titletext--image.html.twig * field--media--field-media-titletext.html.twig * field--media--image.html.twig * field--field-media-titletext.html.twig x field--text-long.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-media-titletext field--type-text-long field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Image copyright and source</div> <div class="field__item"><p>Image courtesy of Steve Ryan, <a href="https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Whitespotted_Surgeonfish,_Acanthurus_guttatus_at_Honauma_Bay,_Oahu,_Hawaii.jpg">Wikimedia Commons</a></p> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> </article><!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/media.html.twig' --><p><strong>Surgeonfishes</strong> are named for the knifelike spines, or scalpels, on either side of the base of their tails. One swipe of the tail can slash an enemy or intruder (Fig. 8).</p> <hr /><p> </p> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'media' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * media--source-image.html.twig * media--image--half-page.html.twig * media--image.html.twig * media--half-page.html.twig x media.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/media.html.twig' --> <article class="align-left media media--type-image media--view-mode-half-page" title="&lt;p&gt;Image courtesy of &lt;a data-cke-saved-href=&quot;https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Forcipiger_longirostris_X-ray.jpg&quot; href=&quot;https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Forcipiger_longirostris_X-ray.jpg&quot;&gt;Wikimedia Commons&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/p&gt;"><!-- THEME DEBUG --><!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --><!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--media--field-media-image--image.html.twig * field--media--field-media-image.html.twig * field--media--image.html.twig * field--field-media-image.html.twig * field--image.html.twig x field.html.twig --><!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/field.html.twig' --><div class="field field--name-field-media-image field--type-image field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Image</div> <div class="field__item"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-formatter.html.twig' --> <a href="/sealearning/sites/default/files/4LS_Butterfly_FIsh_Spines.jpg"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image_style' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-style.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/image.html.twig' --> <div class="imgpost"> <span class="img-overlay-lightbox"></span> <img loading="lazy" src="/sealearning/sites/default/files/styles/half_page/public/4LS_Butterfly_FIsh_Spines.jpg?itok=GQLpoIL4" width="400" height="232" alt="&lt;p&gt;Fig. 9a. An x-ray image of a longnose butterfly fish show off the hidden spines.&lt;/p&gt;" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-half-page" /></div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-style.html.twig' --> </a> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-formatter.html.twig' --> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--media--field-media-alttext--image.html.twig * field--media--field-media-alttext.html.twig * field--media--image.html.twig * field--field-media-alttext.html.twig x field--text-long.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-media-alttext field--type-text-long field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Image caption</div> <div class="field__item"><p>Fig. 9a. An x-ray image of a longnose butterfly fish show off the hidden spines.</p> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--media--field-media-titletext--image.html.twig * field--media--field-media-titletext.html.twig * field--media--image.html.twig * field--field-media-titletext.html.twig x field--text-long.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-media-titletext field--type-text-long field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Image copyright and source</div> <div class="field__item"><p>Image courtesy of <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Forcipiger_longirostris_X-ray.jpg">Wikimedia Commons</a></p> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> </article><!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/media.html.twig' --><!-- THEME DEBUG --><!-- THEME HOOK: 'media' --><!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * media--source-image.html.twig * media--image--half-page.html.twig * media--image.html.twig * media--half-page.html.twig x media.html.twig --><!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/media.html.twig' --><article class="align-left media media--type-image media--view-mode-half-page" title="&lt;p&gt;Image courtesy of &lt;a data-cke-saved-href=&quot;https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chaetodon_capistratus_-_pone.0010676.g099.png&quot; href=&quot;https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chaetodon_capistratus_-_pone.0010676.g099.png&quot;&gt;Wikimedia Commons&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/p&gt;"><!-- THEME DEBUG --><!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --><!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--media--field-media-image--image.html.twig * field--media--field-media-image.html.twig * field--media--image.html.twig * field--field-media-image.html.twig * field--image.html.twig x field.html.twig --><!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/field.html.twig' --><div class="field field--name-field-media-image field--type-image field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Image</div> <div class="field__item"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-formatter.html.twig' --> <a href="/sealearning/sites/default/files/4LS_Butterflyfish_eye_spot.png"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image_style' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-style.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/image.html.twig' --> <div class="imgpost"> <span class="img-overlay-lightbox"></span> <img loading="lazy" src="/sealearning/sites/default/files/styles/half_page/public/4LS_Butterflyfish_eye_spot.png?itok=Jgz9URr_" width="400" height="363" alt="&lt;p&gt;Fig. 9b. The false eye spot on this butterflyfish might confuse a predator.&lt;/p&gt;" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-half-page" /></div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-style.html.twig' --> </a> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-formatter.html.twig' --> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--media--field-media-alttext--image.html.twig * field--media--field-media-alttext.html.twig * field--media--image.html.twig * field--field-media-alttext.html.twig x field--text-long.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-media-alttext field--type-text-long field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Image caption</div> <div class="field__item"><p>Fig. 9b. The false eye spot on this butterflyfish might confuse a predator.</p> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--media--field-media-titletext--image.html.twig * field--media--field-media-titletext.html.twig * field--media--image.html.twig * field--field-media-titletext.html.twig x field--text-long.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-media-titletext field--type-text-long field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Image copyright and source</div> <div class="field__item"><p>Image courtesy of <a href="https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chaetodon_capistratus_-_pone.0010676.g099.png">Wikimedia Commons</a></p> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> </article><!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/media.html.twig' --><p><strong>Butterflyfishes</strong> have many spines disguised in their fins. They use very vivid coloration to announce their potential danger to a predator or enemy (Fig. 9a). Many different types of butterflyfishes, like the millet seed butterfly fish (lauwiliwili), also have big false eye spots near their tails to confuse predators concerning their actual size (Fig. 9b).</p> <hr /><p> </p> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'media' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * media--source-image.html.twig * media--image--third-page.html.twig * media--image.html.twig * media--third-page.html.twig x media.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/media.html.twig' --> <article class="align-left media media--type-image media--view-mode-third-page" title="&lt;p&gt;Image courtesy of &lt;a data-cke-saved-href=&quot;https://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/02sab/logs/aug15/media/puffer.html&quot; href=&quot;https://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/02sab/logs/aug15/media/puffer.html&quot;&gt;NOAA&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/p&gt;"><!-- THEME DEBUG --><!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --><!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--media--field-media-image--image.html.twig * field--media--field-media-image.html.twig * field--media--image.html.twig * field--field-media-image.html.twig * field--image.html.twig x field.html.twig --><!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/field.html.twig' --><div class="field field--name-field-media-image field--type-image field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Image</div> <div class="field__item"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-formatter.html.twig' --> <a href="/sealearning/sites/default/files/4LS_Puffer.jpg"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image_style' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-style.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/image.html.twig' --> <div class="imgpost"> <span class="img-overlay-lightbox"></span> <img loading="lazy" src="/sealearning/sites/default/files/styles/third_page/public/4LS_Puffer.jpg?itok=7ngJIOcn" width="254" height="216" alt="&lt;p&gt;Fig. 10. This porcupine fish is displaying itʻs defenses after being accidentally caught.&lt;/p&gt;" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-third-page" /></div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-style.html.twig' --> </a> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-formatter.html.twig' --> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--media--field-media-alttext--image.html.twig * field--media--field-media-alttext.html.twig * field--media--image.html.twig * field--field-media-alttext.html.twig x field--text-long.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-media-alttext field--type-text-long field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Image caption</div> <div class="field__item"><p>Fig. 10. This porcupine fish is displaying itʻs defenses after being accidentally caught.</p> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--media--field-media-titletext--image.html.twig * field--media--field-media-titletext.html.twig * field--media--image.html.twig * field--field-media-titletext.html.twig x field--text-long.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-media-titletext field--type-text-long field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Image copyright and source</div> <div class="field__item"><p>Image courtesy of <a href="https://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/02sab/logs/aug15/media/puffer.html">NOAA</a></p> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> </article><!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/media.html.twig' --><p><strong>Porcupine pufferfishes</strong> not only inflate their bodies with water to avoid being eaten, but they also have large spikes that poke out from their bodies to prevent capture (Fig. 10).</p> <hr /><p> </p> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'media' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * media--source-image.html.twig * media--image--third-page.html.twig * media--image.html.twig * media--third-page.html.twig x media.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/media.html.twig' --> <article class="align-left media media--type-image media--view-mode-third-page" title="&lt;p&gt;Image courtesy of Taylor Williams/&lt;a data-cke-saved-href=&quot;https://www.fisheries.noaa.gov/science-blog/sea-tales-monitoring-coral-reef-ecosystems-throughout-hawaiian-archipelago&quot; href=&quot;https://www.fisheries.noaa.gov/science-blog/sea-tales-monitoring-coral-reef-ecosystems-throughout-hawaiian-archipelago&quot;&gt;NOAA Fisheries&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/p&gt;"><!-- THEME DEBUG --><!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --><!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--media--field-media-image--image.html.twig * field--media--field-media-image.html.twig * field--media--image.html.twig * field--field-media-image.html.twig * field--image.html.twig x field.html.twig --><!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/field.html.twig' --><div class="field field--name-field-media-image field--type-image field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Image</div> <div class="field__item"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-formatter.html.twig' --> <a href="/sealearning/sites/default/files/4LS_Scorpionfish.jpg"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image_style' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-style.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/image.html.twig' --> <div class="imgpost"> <span class="img-overlay-lightbox"></span> <img loading="lazy" src="/sealearning/sites/default/files/styles/third_page/public/4LS_Scorpionfish.jpg?itok=pvlE8-DM" width="254" height="169" alt="&lt;p&gt;Fig. 11. This scorpionfish is a master of disguise.&amp;nbsp;&lt;/p&gt;" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-third-page" /></div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-style.html.twig' --> </a> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-formatter.html.twig' --> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--media--field-media-alttext--image.html.twig * field--media--field-media-alttext.html.twig * field--media--image.html.twig * field--field-media-alttext.html.twig x field--text-long.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-media-alttext field--type-text-long field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Image caption</div> <div class="field__item"><p>Fig. 11. This scorpionfish is a master of disguise. </p> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--media--field-media-titletext--image.html.twig * field--media--field-media-titletext.html.twig * field--media--image.html.twig * field--field-media-titletext.html.twig x field--text-long.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-media-titletext field--type-text-long field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Image copyright and source</div> <div class="field__item"><p>Image courtesy of Taylor Williams/<a href="https://www.fisheries.noaa.gov/science-blog/sea-tales-monitoring-coral-reef-ecosystems-throughout-hawaiian-archipelago">NOAA Fisheries</a></p> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> </article><!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/media.html.twig' --><p><strong>Scorpionfishes</strong> use coloration to blend into their habitat, effectively hiding themselves by looking like a part of the reef. Because these fish are ambush predators, they also use this advantage to capture unknowing prey. Scorpionfishes also have poisonous spines in their fins (Fig. 11).</p> <hr /><p> </p> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'media' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * media--source-image.html.twig * media--image--third-page.html.twig * media--image.html.twig * media--third-page.html.twig x media.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/media.html.twig' --> <article class="align-left media media--type-image media--view-mode-third-page" title="&lt;p&gt;Image courtesy of &lt;a data-cke-saved-href=&quot;https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Berghia_coerulescens_(Laurillard,_1830).jpg&quot; href=&quot;https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Berghia_coerulescens_(Laurillard,_1830).jpg&quot;&gt;Wikimedia Commons&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/p&gt;"><!-- THEME DEBUG --><!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --><!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--media--field-media-image--image.html.twig * field--media--field-media-image.html.twig * field--media--image.html.twig * field--field-media-image.html.twig * field--image.html.twig x field.html.twig --><!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/field.html.twig' --><div class="field field--name-field-media-image field--type-image field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Image</div> <div class="field__item"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-formatter.html.twig' --> <a href="/sealearning/sites/default/files/4LS_Nudibranch.jpg"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image_style' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-style.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/image.html.twig' --> <div class="imgpost"> <span class="img-overlay-lightbox"></span> <img loading="lazy" src="/sealearning/sites/default/files/styles/third_page/public/4LS_Nudibranch.jpg?itok=4kasP2Me" width="254" height="143" alt="&lt;p&gt;Fig. 12. Nudibranchs are often brightly colored and elaborate organisms.&lt;/p&gt;" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-third-page" /></div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-style.html.twig' --> </a> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-formatter.html.twig' --> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--media--field-media-alttext--image.html.twig * field--media--field-media-alttext.html.twig * field--media--image.html.twig * field--field-media-alttext.html.twig x field--text-long.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-media-alttext field--type-text-long field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Image caption</div> <div class="field__item"><p>Fig. 12. Nudibranchs are often brightly colored and elaborate organisms.</p> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--media--field-media-titletext--image.html.twig * field--media--field-media-titletext.html.twig * field--media--image.html.twig * field--field-media-titletext.html.twig x field--text-long.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-media-titletext field--type-text-long field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Image copyright and source</div> <div class="field__item"><p>Image courtesy of <a href="https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Berghia_coerulescens_(Laurillard,_1830).jpg">Wikimedia Commons</a></p> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> </article><!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/media.html.twig' --><p><strong>Sea snails and nudibranchs</strong> use bright coloration patterns to warn potential predators that they may taste bad or are poisonous (Fig. 12).</p> <hr /><p> </p> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'media' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * media--source-image.html.twig * media--image--third-page.html.twig * media--image.html.twig * media--third-page.html.twig x media.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/media.html.twig' --> <article class="align-left media media--type-image media--view-mode-third-page" title="&lt;p&gt;Image courtesy of Narissa Spies, &lt;a data-cke-saved-href=&quot;https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pocillopora_damicornis_polyps.jpg&quot; href=&quot;https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pocillopora_damicornis_polyps.jpg&quot;&gt;Wikimedia Commons&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/p&gt;"><!-- THEME DEBUG --><!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --><!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--media--field-media-image--image.html.twig * field--media--field-media-image.html.twig * field--media--image.html.twig * field--field-media-image.html.twig * field--image.html.twig x field.html.twig --><!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/field.html.twig' --><div class="field field--name-field-media-image field--type-image field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Image</div> <div class="field__item"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-formatter.html.twig' --> <a href="/sealearning/sites/default/files/4LS_Coral_Polyps.jpg"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image_style' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-style.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/image.html.twig' --> <div class="imgpost"> <span class="img-overlay-lightbox"></span> <img loading="lazy" src="/sealearning/sites/default/files/styles/third_page/public/4LS_Coral_Polyps.jpg?itok=IhXVr3Ll" width="254" height="143" alt="&lt;p&gt;Fig. 13. This coral polyp found in Hawaii has hidden stinging cells used for defense and food capture.&lt;/p&gt;" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-third-page" /></div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-style.html.twig' --> </a> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-formatter.html.twig' --> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--media--field-media-alttext--image.html.twig * field--media--field-media-alttext.html.twig * field--media--image.html.twig * field--field-media-alttext.html.twig x field--text-long.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-media-alttext field--type-text-long field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Image caption</div> <div class="field__item"><p>Fig. 13. This coral polyp found in Hawaii has hidden stinging cells used for defense and food capture.</p> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--media--field-media-titletext--image.html.twig * field--media--field-media-titletext.html.twig * field--media--image.html.twig * field--field-media-titletext.html.twig x field--text-long.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-media-titletext field--type-text-long field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Image copyright and source</div> <div class="field__item"><p>Image courtesy of Narissa Spies, <a href="https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pocillopora_damicornis_polyps.jpg">Wikimedia Commons</a></p> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> </article><!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/media.html.twig' --><p><strong>Corals</strong> also have specialized defense mechanisms called <a href="#Adaptations Vocabulary">nematocysts</a>. Nematocysts are stinging cells that are released when the coral is harassed by predators. Since corals cannot move or shake off any sediment or other particles that may fall on them, they also continually shed mucous to slough off anything that might try to settle on them (Fig. 13).</p> <hr /><p> </p> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'media' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * media--source-image.html.twig * media--image--third-page.html.twig * media--image.html.twig * media--third-page.html.twig x media.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/media.html.twig' --> <article class="align-left media media--type-image media--view-mode-third-page" title="&lt;p&gt;Image courtesy of Nick Hobgood, &lt;a data-cke-saved-href=&quot;https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Dardanus_pedunculatus_(Hermit_crab)_with_anemone_covered_shell.jpg&quot; href=&quot;https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Dardanus_pedunculatus_(Hermit_crab)_with_anemone_covered_shell.jpg&quot;&gt;Wikimedia Commons&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/p&gt;"><!-- THEME DEBUG --><!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --><!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--media--field-media-image--image.html.twig * field--media--field-media-image.html.twig * field--media--image.html.twig * field--field-media-image.html.twig * field--image.html.twig x field.html.twig --><!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/field.html.twig' --><div class="field field--name-field-media-image field--type-image field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Image</div> <div class="field__item"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-formatter.html.twig' --> <a href="/sealearning/sites/default/files/4LS_Decorator_Crab.jpg"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image_style' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-style.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/image.html.twig' --> <div class="imgpost"> <span class="img-overlay-lightbox"></span> <img loading="lazy" src="/sealearning/sites/default/files/styles/third_page/public/4LS_Decorator_Crab.jpg?itok=VTTmg6YM" width="254" height="191" alt="&lt;p&gt;Fig. 14. This crab uses anemones stuck to its shell as added defense.&lt;/p&gt;" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-third-page" /></div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-style.html.twig' --> </a> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-formatter.html.twig' --> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--media--field-media-alttext--image.html.twig * field--media--field-media-alttext.html.twig * field--media--image.html.twig * field--field-media-alttext.html.twig x field--text-long.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-media-alttext field--type-text-long field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Image caption</div> <div class="field__item"><p>Fig. 14. This crab uses anemones stuck to its shell as added defense.</p> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--media--field-media-titletext--image.html.twig * field--media--field-media-titletext.html.twig * field--media--image.html.twig * field--field-media-titletext.html.twig x field--text-long.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-media-titletext field--type-text-long field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Image copyright and source</div> <div class="field__item"><p>Image courtesy of Nick Hobgood, <a href="https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Dardanus_pedunculatus_(Hermit_crab)_with_anemone_covered_shell.jpg">Wikimedia Commons</a></p> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> </article><!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/media.html.twig' --><p><strong>Crabs</strong> have large claws that they use to defend themselves against predators. Crabs also use their claws to catch food. Certain types of hermit crabs often keep anemones on their shells for protection (Fig. 14).</p> <hr /><p> </p> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'media' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * media--source-image.html.twig * media--image--third-page.html.twig * media--image.html.twig * media--third-page.html.twig x media.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/media.html.twig' --> <article class="align-left media media--type-image media--view-mode-third-page" title="&lt;p&gt;Image courtesy of&amp;nbsp;&lt;a data-cke-saved-href=&quot;https://www.flickr.com/photos/noaaphotolib/9734222545/&quot; href=&quot;https://www.flickr.com/photos/noaaphotolib/9734222545/&quot;&gt;NOAA&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/p&gt;"><!-- THEME DEBUG --><!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --><!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--media--field-media-image--image.html.twig * field--media--field-media-image.html.twig * field--media--image.html.twig * field--field-media-image.html.twig * field--image.html.twig x field.html.twig --><!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/field.html.twig' --><div class="field field--name-field-media-image field--type-image field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Image</div> <div class="field__item"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-formatter.html.twig' --> <a href="/sealearning/sites/default/files/4LS_Anemone.jpg"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image_style' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-style.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/image.html.twig' --> <div class="imgpost"> <span class="img-overlay-lightbox"></span> <img loading="lazy" src="/sealearning/sites/default/files/styles/third_page/public/4LS_Anemone.jpg?itok=6Ck7wy0U" width="254" height="191" alt="&lt;p&gt;Fig. 15. This anemone resembles a coral polyp and has the same defensive stinging cells called nematocysts.&lt;/p&gt;" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-third-page" /></div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/image.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-style.html.twig' --> </a> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-formatter.html.twig' --> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--media--field-media-alttext--image.html.twig * field--media--field-media-alttext.html.twig * field--media--image.html.twig * field--field-media-alttext.html.twig x field--text-long.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-media-alttext field--type-text-long field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Image caption</div> <div class="field__item"><p>Fig. 15. This anemone resembles a coral polyp and has the same defensive stinging cells called nematocysts.</p> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--media--field-media-titletext--image.html.twig * field--media--field-media-titletext.html.twig * field--media--image.html.twig * field--field-media-titletext.html.twig x field--text-long.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-media-titletext field--type-text-long field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Image copyright and source</div> <div class="field__item"><p>Image courtesy of <a href="https://www.flickr.com/photos/noaaphotolib/9734222545/">NOAA</a></p> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-long.html.twig' --> </article><!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/media.html.twig' --><p><strong>Anemones</strong> have special stinging cells in their tentacles, just like corals. When a predator tries to eat the hermit crab, it gets a mouthful of nematocysts instead.</p> <hr /><div class="embed"> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'entity_embed_container' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/entity-embed-container.html.twig' --> <div class="action-background"> <div id="node-1860" class="node node-special-feature-page special-feature-type-voice-of-the-sea contextual-links-region clearfix special-feature-type- " data-embed-button="node" data-entity-embed-display="entity_reference:entity_reference_label" data-entity-embed-display-settings="{&quot;link&quot;:1}" data-entity-type="node" data-entity-uuid="2844d4d8-ad42-4a3a-be74-45fea3ecca37" data-langcode="und"> <div class="embed-type-marker"><i class="icon white"></i></div> <div class="embed-supertitle">VOICE OF THE SEA</div> <h2 class="embed-title"> <a target="_blank" href="/sealearning/grade-4/life-science/structure-function/voice-sea-strange-fish-deep" hreflang="und">Strange Fish of The Deep</a> </h2> <div class="field-item even"><p></p></div> <div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/entity-embed-container.html.twig' --> </div></div><br /></p><table border="1" cellpadding="1" cellspacing="1"><tbody><tr><td><a name="Adaptations Vocabulary" id="Adaptations Vocabulary">Adaptations Vocabulary</a> <ul><li><strong>Algae</strong>: simple one-celled or many-celled aquatic plants that lack true roots and leaves.</li> <li><strong>Ambush predator</strong>: an organism that hides and waits for prey to pass, rather than actively chasing prey.</li> <li><strong>Barbel</strong>: a whisker-like organ near the mouth found in some fish. The structure and function of barbels varies.</li> <li><strong>Carnivore</strong>: an animal that feeds on other animals.</li> <li><strong>Function</strong>: an adaptation that contributes to evolutionary fitness.</li> <li><strong>Herbivore</strong>: animals that eat plants.</li> <li><strong>Nematocysts</strong>: a specialized cell in the tentacles of jellyfish, corals, and related organisms. Nematocysts contain barbed and venomous coiled threads that can be projected in self-defense or to capture prey.</li> <li><strong>Niche</strong>: the ecological role of an organism in a community.</li> <li><strong>Omnivore</strong>: animals that eat both plants and animals.</li> <li><strong>Prey</strong>: organism that is caught and eaten by a predator.</li> <li><strong>Structure</strong>: the arrangement of and relation between the parts of something complex.</li> <li><strong>Zooplankton</strong>: animal plankton, consisting of small animals and the immature stages of larger animals.</li> </ul></td> </tr></tbody></table><p> </p> <p> </p> </div> <div class="embed"> </div> <div class="embed"> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-with-summary.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: x links--node.html.twig x links--node.html.twig * links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/links--node.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/links--node.html.twig' --> Mon, 09 Apr 2018 23:56:56 +0000 rnakama 1856 at http://manoa.hawaii.edu/sealearning http://manoa.hawaii.edu/sealearning/grade-4/life-science/structure-function#comments Introduction to Adaptations and Life Strategies http://manoa.hawaii.edu/sealearning/grade-4/life-science/introduction-adaptations-and-life-strategies <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--title--topic-page.html.twig x field--node--title.html.twig * field--node--topic-page.html.twig * field--title.html.twig * field--string.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Introduction to Adaptations and Life Strategies</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--title.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-display-title--topic-page.html.twig * field--node--field-display-title.html.twig * field--node--topic-page.html.twig * field--field-display-title.html.twig * field--string.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-display-title field--type-string field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Title</div> <div class="field__item"><h1>Introduction to Adaptations and Life Strategies</h1> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--uid--topic-page.html.twig x field--node--uid.html.twig * field--node--topic-page.html.twig * field--uid.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'username' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> <span lang="" about="/sealearning/user/357" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">rnakama</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/user/username.html.twig' --> </span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--uid.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--created--topic-page.html.twig x field--node--created.html.twig * field--node--topic-page.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field--created.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Mon, 04/09/2018 - 13:56</span> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--node--created.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-standards-ngss-pe--topic-page.html.twig * field--node--field-standards-ngss-pe.html.twig * field--node--topic-page.html.twig * field--field-standards-ngss-pe.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-standards-ngss-pe field--type-entity-reference field--label-above field--depth-2"> <div class="field__label">NGSS Performance Expectations</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/sealearning/taxonomy/term/799" hreflang="en">4-LS1-1 Construct an argument that plants and animals have internal and external structures that function to support survival, growth, behavior, and reproduction.</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/sealearning/taxonomy/term/800" hreflang="en">4-LS1-2 Use a model to describe that animals receive different types of information through their senses, process the information in their brain, and respond to the information in different ways.</a></div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-standards-olp--topic-page.html.twig * field--node--field-standards-olp.html.twig * field--node--topic-page.html.twig * field--field-standards-olp.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-standards-olp field--type-entity-reference field--label-above field--depth-5"> <div class="field__label">Ocean Literacy Principles</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/sealearning/taxonomy/term/399" hreflang="en">OLP 5: The ocean supports a great diversity of life and ecosystems</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/sealearning/taxonomy/term/423" hreflang="en">OLP 5.A</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/sealearning/taxonomy/term/426" hreflang="en">OLP 5.D</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/sealearning/taxonomy/term/398" hreflang="en">OLP 6: The ocean and humans are inextricably interconnected</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/sealearning/taxonomy/term/435" hreflang="en">OLP 6.D</a></div> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-toc--topic-page.html.twig * field--node--field-toc.html.twig * field--node--topic-page.html.twig * field--field-toc.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-toc field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Table of Contents</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/sealearning/table-contents/introduction-adaptations-and-life-strategies" hreflang="en">Introduction to Adaptations and Life Strategies</a></div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--field-representative-image--topic-page.html.twig * field--node--field-representative-image.html.twig * field--node--topic-page.html.twig * field--field-representative-image.html.twig * field--entity-reference.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-representative-image field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Representative Image</div> <div class="field__item"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'media' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * media--source-image.html.twig * media--image--none-original-size-.html.twig * media--image.html.twig * media--none-original-size-.html.twig x media.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/media.html.twig' --> <article class="media media--type-image media--view-mode-none-original-size-"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--media--field-media-image--image.html.twig * field--media--field-media-image.html.twig * field--media--image.html.twig * field--field-media-image.html.twig * field--image.html.twig x field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/field.html.twig' --> <div class="field field--name-field-media-image field--type-image field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Image</div> <div class="field__item"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image_formatter' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-formatter.html.twig' --> <a href="/sealearning/sites/default/files/4LS_Intro_Thumbnail.png"> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'image' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/image.html.twig' --> <img loading="lazy" src="/sealearning/sites/default/files/4LS_Intro_Thumbnail.png" width="147" height="67" typeof="foaf:Image" /> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/image.html.twig' --> </a> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/image-formatter.html.twig' --> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/field.html.twig' --> </article> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/media.html.twig' --> </div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/field.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--comment-node-topic-page--topic-page.html.twig * field--node--comment-node-topic-page.html.twig * field--node--topic-page.html.twig * field--comment-node-topic-page.html.twig x field--comment.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--comment.html.twig' --> <section class="field field--name-comment-node-topic-page field--type-comment field--label-hidden comment-wrapper"> </section> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--comment.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'field' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: * field--node--body--topic-page.html.twig * field--node--body.html.twig * field--node--topic-page.html.twig * field--body.html.twig x field--text-with-summary.html.twig * field.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-with-summary.html.twig' --> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><h2 style="text-align: center;">LS1: From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes: <br /> How do organisms live, grow, respond to their environment, and reproduce?</h2> <hr /><p><strong>LS1.A: Structure and Function</strong>: How do the structures of organisms enable life’s functions?</p> <p><strong>Learning goals by the end of grade 5</strong>: Plants and animals have both internal and external structures that serve various functions in growth, survival, behavior, and reproduction. (Boundary: Stress at this grade level is on understanding the macroscale systems and their function, not microscopic processes.)</p> <hr /><p><strong>LS1.D: Information Processing</strong>: How do organisms detect, process, and use information about the environment?</p> <p><strong>Learning goals by the end of grade 5</strong>: Different sense receptors are specialized for particular kinds of information, which may then be processed and integrated by an animal’s brain, with some information stored as memories. Animals are able to use their perceptions and memories to guide their actions. Some responses to information are instinctive—that is, animals’ brains are organized so that they do not have to think about how to respond to certain stimuli.</p> <hr /><h2 style="text-align: center;">Ocean Literacy Principles</h2> <p><a href="http://manoa.hawaii.edu/sealearning/standards-alignment/ocean-literacy-principles-olp/olp-5-ocean-supports-great-diversity-life-and-ecosystems">Principle 5: The ocean supports a great diversity of life and ecosystems.</a></p> <p><strong>Ocean Literacy Fundamental Concept</strong>: Ocean life ranges in size from the smallest living things, microbes, to the largest animal on Earth, blue whales. (OLP5a)</p> <hr /><p><strong>Ocean Literacy Fundamental Concept</strong>: Ocean biology provides many unique examples of life cycles, adaptations, and important relationships among organisms (symbiosis, predator-prey dynamics, and energy transfer) that do not occur on land. (OLP5d)</p> <hr /><p><a href="http://manoa.hawaii.edu/sealearning/standards-alignment/ocean-literacy-principles-olp/olp-6-ocean-and-humans-are-inextricably-interconnected">Principle 6: The ocean and humans are inextricably interconnected.</a></p> <p><strong>Ocean Literacy Fundamental Concept</strong>: Humans affect the ocean in a variety of ways. Laws, regulations, and resource management affect what is taken out and put into the ocean. Human development and activity leads to pollution (point source, non-point source, and noise pollution), changes to ocean chemistry (ocean acidification), and physical modifications (changes to beaches, shores, and rivers). In addition, humans have removed most of the large vertebrates from the ocean. (OLP6d)</p> <hr /><p> </p> <h3><strong>These concepts will be explored in this unit through the following activities and investigations:</strong></h3> <p> </p> <p> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'entity_embed_container' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/entity-embed-container.html.twig' --> <div class="action-background"> <div id="node-1857" class="node node-activity-page special-feature-type-activity contextual-links-region clearfix special-feature-type- " data-embed-button="node" data-entity-embed-display="entity_reference:entity_reference_label" data-entity-embed-display-settings="{&quot;link&quot;:1}" data-entity-type="node" data-entity-uuid="12aafe30-8e3e-483a-818c-6096ddcd7ce1" data-langcode="und"> <div class="embed-type-marker"><i class="icon white"></i></div> <div class="embed-supertitle">ACTIVITY</div> <h2 class="embed-title"> <a target="_blank" href="/sealearning/grade-4/life-science/structure-function/activity-structure-function-hungry-reef-fish" hreflang="und">Structure to Function: Hungry Reef Fish</a> </h2> <div class="field-item even"><p></p></div> <div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/entity-embed-container.html.twig' --> </div></div></p> <p> </p> <p> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'entity_embed_container' --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/entity-embed-container.html.twig' --> <div class="action-background"> <div id="node-1866" class="node node-activity-page special-feature-type-activity contextual-links-region clearfix special-feature-type- " data-embed-button="node" data-entity-embed-display="entity_reference:entity_reference_label" data-entity-embed-display-settings="{&quot;link&quot;:1}" data-entity-type="node" data-entity-uuid="8ecb7f8b-d37a-483c-9973-d4453edf59b8" data-langcode="und"> <div class="embed-type-marker"><i class="icon white"></i></div> <div class="embed-supertitle">ACTIVITY</div> <h2 class="embed-title"> <a target="_blank" href="/sealearning/grade-4/life-science/information-processing/activity-echolocating-dolphins" hreflang="und">Echolocating with Dolphins</a> </h2> <div class="field-item even"><p></p></div> <div> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'themes/tsi/templates/entity-embed-container.html.twig' --> </div></div></p> </div> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/field/field--text-with-summary.html.twig' --> <!-- THEME DEBUG --> <!-- THEME HOOK: 'links__node' --> <!-- FILE NAME SUGGESTIONS: x links--node.html.twig x links--node.html.twig * links.html.twig --> <!-- BEGIN OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/links--node.html.twig' --> <!-- END OUTPUT from 'core/themes/classy/templates/content/links--node.html.twig' --> Mon, 09 Apr 2018 23:56:30 +0000 rnakama 1855 at http://manoa.hawaii.edu/sealearning