Mahalo nui to Anianikū Chong (with the help of Kamehameha Schools Kanaeokana) for an amazing video about this year’s Hawaiian Youths Abroad program!
We are preparing from our HYA “Food & Fond Memories” hōʻike tomorrow and are putting together our research to share with the community. Check out these pictures Kawēlau Wright compiled of 6 of the original HYA students from Agnes Quigg’s 1988 article on the program.
na Kaipulaumakaniolono Baker, mēkia ʻŌlelo Hawaiʻi & ʻŌlelo Haole
E holo ana ʻo Kalākaua
E ʻimi i ka pono o nā moku
I Kahiki a hoʻi mai
I ka ʻohe kāʻekeʻeke
I ka pahu kani a Lono
Hoʻoheihei kani moana
Kani Hāwea pahu aliʻi
Eō mai e Ka Lani
No Kalākaua nō he inoa
E aloha aʻe ana mākou i ka Lani Kau Kehakeha, ka Lani nāna ʻo Iolani, ka Lani ʻo ka Lā e ʻĀlohi Nei, ka Lani Nōwelo Pau Pali Paʻa, e Kapuamaeʻoleikalā, e Kahekeaʻonāpua, e Ka Lani Kāwika Kalākaua nāna i hele kaʻapuni ka hōnua me ke ohaoha, ke aloha, ka paulele, a me ka haukalī ʻia a linohau e ka pāpahi lāhui Hawaiʻi. Aloha nō ʻoe.
E Kalākaua kūlia i ke ola, kūlia i ka pono, kūlia i ka nuʻu, a kau pono i ka wēkiu i loko nō o ka ʻahiʻahi a me ka niʻaniʻa o Alohaʻole mā. E Kalākaua naku aku i ke ala hihipeʻa o ka ʻīnea. E Kalākaua ke kia ʻoʻoleʻa i ka makani, e kū wīkani ana i ke ao mālama. E Kalākaua nāu nō i hoʻounauna aku i kāu poʻe kama ponoʻī i ō ka hōnua ākea e hoʻonaʻauao ʻia. Iā ʻoe e ke kumu o ka naʻauao o ko Hawaiʻi pae ʻāina. E Kalākaua nou mau loa ka mahalo. E Kalākaua nou mau loa ke aloha. E Kalākaua nāu nō mākou i hoʻounauna ʻia aku i nei ʻāina ʻē, nei ʻāina kolo a ka naio, nei mau pali āu i ʻuwehe mai ai, i nei alahula a nā kūpuna.
E Kalākaua nāu nō ke ala i hoʻomaʻa ʻia i ka hele, a eia nō mākou i uhaele mai, eia nō mākou i haia akula i kāu poʻe haumāna, kāu poʻe pulapula. E kuʻi nō ka lono i Pelekāne, a e lohe nā kuini a puni ke ao, he lono ia na ka lāhui, he lono hoʻi ia no ka lāhui:
Ua kaʻi pono ʻia nā ʻŌpio Hawaiʻi ʻImi Naʻauao o ka makahiki 2018 e ka malu o ke Aliʻi ʻo Kalākaua. Ua pae pono ka huakaʻi, ua kō nā pahuhopu pau loa, ua ʻalohi hou maila ka lā ma nā welelau aʻo ka hōnua, ua hele aku nā pua o ka hikina me ke akamai a me ka mikiʻoi. Ua Lanakila ka Lāhui Hawaiʻi.
E ʻikuwā ka hōnua i lalo, e hākuʻi ka pōhaku, e nākolokolo ka lani, e hula leʻa wale i kai, e kakani aʻe ʻo Pihenui, a puni ka leo i ke ao, ua ao Hawaiʻi ke ʻōlino nei.
Ua hele ʻia nā ʻāina i kipa mua ʻia e ko kākou poʻe kūpuna. Ua heluhelu ʻia nā palapala a ko kākou mau haku i hoʻokaʻa aku ai me nā Lālani Aliʻi ʻē aʻe a puni ka hōnua. Ua waele maʻemaʻe aʻela mākou i ka pā o kekahi haumāna, ʻo Matthew Mākālua, i noho mau loa aku ai a e moe mai nei i Hastings, he ʻāina hoʻoheno hoʻi na ka malihini i kamaʻāina i ke kupuna o kākou.
Ua hele palanehe ʻia ke ala.
No kēlā kēia wanaʻao ʻana o ko ʻaneʻi ʻāina, he manomano nā ao mālamalama i mākili maila i loko o nā naʻau pākahi o kēlā kēia haumāna i huakaʻi like maila i ka ʻāina o ke Kaʻa-puhi-ʻoni-uila.
ʻO ke ʻano o ke ao ma ʻaneʻi, he nāpoʻo ma mua pono o ka huli ʻana o ka iʻa (hola 10:30pm – 11:00pm, paha) a he wanaʻao i ke kani a ka moa kuakolu (hola 4:30am paha). No laila, ʻo kā mākou i ka pō, ʻaʻohe nō he hele Baibala i ka helu hipa, e kipa aku mākou me Niolopua e luana ana i Helumoa. Moe poko wale ka pō, he ao mālama wale nō kā mākou e luana ai, ʻo ia nō hoʻi ʻoe ʻo ke ʻano o kēia huakaʻi. He huakaʻi kēia na Maui, he huakaʻi hele a ka lā, he huakaʻi ʻume mālama, he huakaʻi no ka naʻauao. Moe poko ka pō, he loa ka ʻimina o ke ao.
Mea ʻole naʻe ka loa o ke aho o kēia poʻe lawaiʻa naʻauao, ʻo ka ʻike o kēia huakaʻi he mālolo kia waʻa. E lele nui ana ka iʻa mai ʻō a ma ʻaneʻi, ʻo ka maiau o ka lawaiʻa akamai i ka hopu ʻana a me ke ākea o ke kuamoʻo o ka waʻa wale nō kai pono ai kēia huakaʻi. Kohu mea lā iā mākou nō paha kēnā wahi leho kaulana i ʻaihue ʻia e ke keiki lewalewa o nā Pali Hāuliuli o Koʻolau, ʻo ʻIwa. He pahuhopu hūlalilali wale mākou e ʻōlinolino lile aʻe ana i ka ʻilikai, e lele mai ana ka mālolo, ke ahikananā, ke ahikāhuli, ka ʻulua, ka heʻe, ka ʻāweoweo, ke kala, ka nenue, ka ʻono, a he ʻono ʻiʻo nō! Mai pīholo maila ka waʻa a mākou i ka nui iʻa, he pōmaikaʻi hoʻi ka laua ʻana o kēia huakaʻi. Inā nō he ʻelua anahulu ka nohona, inā nō e kū ana kēia wahi waʻa i ka hopena o Halaʻea.
Ua pōmaikaʻi nō naʻe mākou i ke akamai a kā mākou poʻe hoʻokele, na lākou mākou e lana mau nei. ʻO ke Aliʻi Waʻa ʻo ia nō hoʻi ʻo Nālani Balutski, ʻo ke Kilo ʻo ia nō ʻo Eōmailani Kūkahiko,ʻo ka Hoʻokele ʻo ia nō ʻo Willy Kauai, a ʻo ka Luna Hōʻoia ʻo ia nō ʻo Māhealani Nishimura, ʻo lākou lā Nā Lani ʻEhā o kēia huakaʻi a mākou. A ʻo nā hoa waʻa nō mākou poʻe keiki ʻopeʻope i ʻukali aku i ka huakaʻi. ʻO Hina Keala, ʻo Anianaikū Chong, ʻo Kamuela Pāka (Park), ʻo Tina Kaleiwahea, ʻo Nikki Dutro, ʻo Cathy Ferreira, ʻo Makana Pacarro, ʻo Hoʻoleia Kaʻeo, ʻo Kawēlau Wright, ʻo Wyatt Souza, ʻo Ilima lāua ʻo Kahele Long, ʻo Keano Davis, a ʻo Kaipulaumakaniolono mākou poʻe luhi i kaualakō ʻia aku.
ʻO mākou nā pulapula, nā kama, nā uhai a loloa o ka leo nanahe e like nō hoʻi me Pelehōnuamea i hahai aku i ka leo niau hākukoʻi o ka pahu e kani mai ana. ʻAʻole nō naʻe ʻo Hāʻena i ka Hālau a Ola i ka home o kahi Lohiauipo mākou i hiki aku ai, ʻo Kahiki-wāwae-pahu kā mākou ʻāina, e kaʻi ana i ka pahu kani a Lono i lono loa aku i ke ao. I lono loa aku i nā naʻau ʻoliʻoli o ko Hawaiʻi, i lono loa aku i ko mākou mau one hānau, i lono loa aku i nā kahaone a pau o ka hōnua, i lono aku iā ʻoe e ka makamaka e hoʻoikaika mai nei i ka heluhelu.
He wahi haʻina wale nō kēia o ka mahalo a me ke aloha iā ʻoe no ke kākoʻo nui ʻana mai i kā mākou huakaʻi i hele loa mai nei. Aia lā, eia nō mākou ke huli hoʻi nei no Hawaiʻi. E hoʻi ana no nā one kani o ko mākou ʻāina, e pae ana ma nā nalu haʻi o Kahiki, e hoʻopiʻi ana i nā iʻa o ka lāhui e lele mālolo aku i Naʻe, i ka lā puka i Haʻehaʻe, i ka lā hiki, i ka hiki ʻana mai o ko kākou au o ke ao mālama. E kō mai ana ke au iā kākou e ka lāhui, iā kākou ka lanakila.
No laila, e hoʻokanaka aʻe kākou. He lā puka, he wanaʻao, he lā nō ia e kū aʻe ai, e kū haʻaheo. No ka Hawaiʻi ke kuleana, na ka Hawaiʻi e ʻauamo i ko kākou pono.
E ka Lāhui Hawaiʻi, e kūlike kākou a e kāʻili mai i ka moku.
by Catherine Ferreira, English major
“Places Here are So Familiar to Me”
by Christina Kaleiwahea, Finance major
We are in London, and I can hardly realize the fact. It seems like a dream, and, what seems more strange, the names of streets and places here are so familiar to me—having heard and read of them from my childhood. It seems as if I had been away for years, and had come back to renew my acquaintance with them.
Bernice Pauahi, 1875
These were the words of Aliʻi Bernice Pauahi during her European travels that took place between 1875-1876. For over one year, she and her husband, Charles Bishop, jaunted across several countries and were hosted by many influential figures of Europe’s elitist classes. Such confidence and competence that Aliʻi Pauahi—and many other kānaka who have come before us—radiated in the international arena has been lost within kānaka of today as evidenced in the low study abroad participation of Hawaiian haumāna at university. This is due to the systematic shaming and minimizing of our role as Hawaiians in the world inflicted by the US empire. But as the Hawaiian Youths Abroad (HYA) of 2018 humbly retrace the journeys of the Hawaiian Youths of the late 1800’s, our experiences consistently demonstrate that by going “away” we are somehow getting closer to the legacy of our kūpuna, who have showed us, many times over, we are inherent global citizens.
On a very literal level, the city of London in the United Kingdom (UK) bears very many attributes that the HYA find akin to Hawaiʻi. Of course, English is the dominant language of the region, which has made interaction with local sites and people accessible. While the city is vast—with an area the size of all of Oʻahu Island—the building architecture is strikingly similar to that of the old Hotel Street establishments, ʻIolani Palace, or Kawaiahaʻo Church in Honolulu. Victorian—as the style is called—refers to the 1800’s era of Queen Victoria. She had a long reign over the British Empire, which was the largest empire of all time. Combined with our continued struggle for liberation from US occupation, the strong presence of British influence in the islands may make kānaka feel like mere subjects of this empire that once ruled over one fifth of the world’s population. But by investigating further, the evidence shows Hawaiʻi and its royalty were regarded as partners by the Britain Empire (not to mention many other world powers). The HYA cohort was able to visit the room of the Windsor Castle where Mōʻī Kalākaua personally met Queen Victoria. On a separate occasion, Aliʻi Pauahi also met Queen Victoria and journaled about the warm reception she received from her. During our visit to the Royal Archives, we were shown Queen Victoria’s journal (transcribed by her daughter, Princess Beatrice) with entries documenting her interactions with members of our Hawaiian monarchy. These recordings, described to us by the Royal Archivist as “formal but very personal”, reveal to us that kānaka are worldly contributors and received as such.
Another figure prominently recalled in both Hawaiʻi and London is James Cook—albeit less harmoniously. He also chronicled his interactions with the people of Hawaiʻi in his personal journal that was on display at the British Library the HYA visited. While this particular exhibitionist explicitly states that it is working to edit the (traditionally neocolonial) retelling of his voyages by “includ[ing] responses from people of the communities Cook encountered”, this experience reminds us to continue to problematize dominant narratives. By doing so, we not only make way for our own decolonization but also the globe’s. In fact, Britain was on the receiving end of imperialism and cultural assimilation several times in its existence and can learn from our willingness to diversify history as it is told. While our kūpuna had favorable interstate relationships with foreign leaders and incorporated into Hawaiʻi desirable features of foreign societies, they always adapted them to create symbiosis with native principles. Aliʻi Pauahi, too, saw in London, a painting depicting the death of Captain Cook and wrote, “There was one picture which interested me much…It was a spirited scene, but doubtful, as being a true representation of the actual encounter with the natives”. Her education, lifestyle, and descendance from Kamaheameha I cultivated global mindedness, but this was not in lieu of putting an end to the erasure of the lāhui. Likewise, as the HYA explore foreign physical, social, political structures, we must bring back what is progressive and aligned for Hawaiʻi’s being in the future and resolutely reject what is not.
A Royal Acquaintance: Queen Emma & Queen Victoria
by Adrienne Keano Davis, Hawaiian Studies & Secondary Education major
As we continue to build our knowledge and seek to understand more about the relationships established by the aliʻi and nobles before, we paid a visit to the Royal archives the other day. The Royal Archives also known as the Queens Archives, was formally established in 1912 and takes up residency in the Round Tower of Windsor Castle. Established during the reign of George V, the need to house papers for the royal family was evident following the death of Queen Victoria in 1901. Prior to establishing the archives, records were stored in trunks, cupboards, and random places in the royal residence. In Queen Victoria’s impressive reign of 63 years, she had built up a vast collection of private and official letters including some of which were between her and our very own Queen Emma Rooke.
Emma Kalanikaumakaʻamano Kaleleokalani Naʻea Rooke, later known as Kaleleonālani, had established a beautiful relationship with Queen Victoria and they often corresponded through letters from 1862 to 1882. In fact Queen Victoria was even the godmother of their son Prince Albert. The King on June 28, 1858 writes:
It is the warmest wish of my heart, that my son destined, in God’s good providence to succeed me, should be taught from his earliest years to hold Your Majesty’s name in especial regard…If Your Majesty would condescend to be Sponsor by Proxy . . . to the future Ruler of this Country, it would be such an honor…
Quote from “My Dear Friend”: Letters of Queen Victoria and Queen Emma
However tragedy struck soon after Price Alberts christening:
Palace of Honolulu
10th September 1862
As a wife and fond mother, my heart overflows with gratitude to your Majesty, for the honour which you have been so graciously pleased to render to the King, my husband, and to our only son, in condescending to become his sponsor, at his baptism… But, alas! Your Majesty’s spiritual relation to my beloved child has been of short duration, for it pleased Almighty God, in his inscrutable Providence, to call him away from this world, on the 17th August, only a few days after his baptism…
Your Good & Grateful friend
As I reflect on this exchange between the royals, it is apparent that there was a level of comfort that been firmly established enough for the King to be the one to ask for this honor from the queen. We know of the relationship between the two queens, but what of the King and Victoria? At what point did they begin their own relationship and if the roles were reversed and if it was the queen who had passed, would this relationship have continued?
Unforeseen tragedy made Emma a young childless widow. The loss of the election in 1874 against Kalākaua added to the burden of her already heavy heart. During the time of this heated election, I wonder if Queen Victoria reached out to Queen Emma in any kind of way? Could her outside influence somehow have changed the results of the election and if so how would that have affected the Hawaiian Kingdom? We read of this closeness between the two queens but in their 20 year relationship was there ever a time they were not so close? And to that effect I also wonder what besides tragedy brought them together?
Queen Emma traveled abroad, for an extensive amount of time in hopes to gather support in England for the work of the Anglican Church in Hawai’i. Queen Victoria writes this about Queen Emma meeting for the first September 9, 1865
After luncheon I received Queen Emma, the widowed Queen of the Sandwich Islands or Hawaii, met her in the Corridor & nothing could be nicer or more dignified than her manner…. She was much moved when I spoke of her great misfortune in losing her husband & only child. ( September 9, 1865)
Two months later on November 27, she was invited to spend the night at the Esteemed Windsor castle leaving with a gift of jewelry we know now as the Hawaiian bracelet. A photograph of Queen Emma is in the Royal Archives photographed by John and Charles Watkins, the Court Photographers costing 7 shillings and 6 pence. I wonder what that translates to into dollars today? The bill also notates that “the profits” are to be “devoted to the Hawaiian Mission” Queen Emma also had the opportunity to meet with Prince and Princess of Wales at their London home, Marlborough House while traveling through London.
As we look at this close relationship between two who couldn’t be more opposite, I wonder if the relationship would be as close had their spouses and son survived? Where was Queen Victoria during the time of the overthrow and could she have prevented years of oppression?
Dr. Makalua Inspiring the People & Board of Health’s Medical School Establishment
by Nalani Balutski
Matthew Manuia Makalua was one of three students in the Hawaiian Youths Abroad program who studied in England, along with Abraham Piianaia and Joseph Kamauoha in 1882. Makalua was the longest supported student in the program, as he continued to receive support from the Hawaiian Kingdom government until 1892. Makalua never returned home, as he married and started a family and practice in England.
The Daily Bulletin in September 1888 reported on Makalua’s progress in England: “Matthew Makalua, a young Hawaiian who has been studying medicine for the past four years in England at the Government expense, was recently married to the daughter of an English doctor. Makalua is now walking the hospitals.” A few months later, in January 1889, the same newspaper reported that Makalua had “won his certificate of honor in anatomy at King’s College, London.”
By the turn of the century, Dr. Makalua was an award-winning physician. An 1889 newspaper article announces that he won a prize for Hygiene and Medical Sanitation, a first Certificate of Honor for Medical Jurisprudence for the year 1888-1889, and a finalist for Pathology and Morbid Anatomy. Even while living away, Makalua found ways to remain connected to his home country. In 1893, a report of a damaged ship, the “San Mateo,” that was sent for repair was printed in the Hawaiian Gazette newspaper. The ship, owned by “M.E.M. Makalua and others, of England…flies the Hawaiian flag. On her way out from England via the Suez canal several years ago, she called at this port to be registered under the Hawaiian flag.”
In 1890, the Hawaiian Gazette reported from the 1890 legislative session a series of petitions received, including the following: “that Mr. Makalua be requested to return and practice; that native Hawaiians practice medicine and all foreign doctors be discharged, and all medical books be translated into Hawaiian; that restrictions for voting be repealed; that Chinese be allowed to vote. Referred to Committee on Miscellaneous Petitions.” An editorial in The Daily Bulletin a week later also comments on the issue of Dr. Makalua returning home: “Again, has not Dr. Makalua been educated mostly at the expense of the Hawaiian Government, and would it not be only justice to have him return and make some use of his education along his own nation who are at this time almost entirely at the mercy of foreigners?”
In December 1890, the Board of Health met to consider a “proposition of a Chicago University to establish a school of medicine on the Islands…Owing to the vagueness of the proposition, the Board could do nothing definite, but is disposed to favor it, and a communication will be sent to the University asking for a proposition of a more specific character.” In the same article, discussion on a letter from Dr. Makalua was reported of his work with a specific treatment of “the Koch remedy for consumption.” Therefore, the idea to create a medical school in the Hawaiian Kingdom in 1890 means that it would have predated the John A. Burns School of Medicine (JABSOM) by 75 years.
On April 26, 1891, Hon. Joseph Nawahi spoke at a visit to the Kalaupapa leper settlement that was intended as an inspection but also one to give the residents the assurance of the “interest, sympathy and intentions of those in authority for the condition and the welfare of the afflicted.” The speeches were recorded in The Hawaiian Gazette that spoke about the need for increased medical care and expertise, which drew out a highlight, especially by Joseph Nawahi on training Hawaiian youths abroad to study medicine following in the path of Dr. Makalua. Hon. Nawahi said “It is the duty of the Government to send Hawaiian youths abroad to be educated in medicine. This is the only way left us for saving our race. There is not a single Hawaiian who will dare cheat his own race; for this reason I strongly urge the immediate sending of Hawaiian boys abroad in order to avoid our downward path to destruction. Dr. Matthew Makalua, a true Hawaiian, is at present in England, studying medical sciences. One is not sufficient, send several more. Therefore let us hope till our desires are fulfilled, but in the meanwhile, we must abide by the laws of our land. But just as I have said, there is but one alternative left us for saving our country, and that to have Hawaiian youths educated abroad.”
The Hawaiian Gazette, on July 26, 1892, printed proceedings from the Hawaiian Legislative session on July 10, 1892, including a summary of petitions received “that the Government establish a medical college in this kingdom for native Hawaiians…that the Government request Makalua to return to this country and teach native Hawaiians the art of medicine; that medical books be translated into the native language…that all books used in the schools be translated into Hawaiian.”
In correspondence between Kalākaua and Makalua at the Bishop Museum Archives, one letter and a memo references the tumultuous political situation at home in Hawaiʻi. A September 10, 1890 letter from Kalākaua to Matthew Makalua states:
Honolulu, H. Is; Sept 10, 1890.
Matthew M Makalua,
It is sometime since we have corresponded together for reasons no doubt you can well understand—The country having recovered from political convulsion requires time for rest. I have therefore taken this opportunity to write and say that I have received your last letter, and could not answer the many queries concerning my Nephews and other matters you wrote upon. If there is anything I can reconcile you to Mr Armstrong I would be most happy to be the medium of reconciliation if in my power to do so.
I see Uncle Nowlein, Aunty Lucy and Maili. I am so sorry Maili did not stay to finish her education. Any-how, what she has accomplished is a goodd eal though she is not too old to learn more.
I have a great desire for you to join the Prince of Wales class for studying Leper cases. Although to us here the de [sic] disease is well known, but the physicians does not seem to know the modus opporandi of proceding to operate upon each stage of the case.
Her Majesty joins with me intendering yourself and Mrs Makalua, our best wishes for your welfare.
The folder in the Bishop Museum Archives containing this letter is adjacent to a hand written note that, based on the contents of the note, is from a more recent time period, perhaps accompanying a donation to the musum of the 1890 Kalākaua letter from Makalua’s grandchild reading:
Matthew Everard Puakakoililanimanuia Makalua
(later, just simply Matthew Manuia Makalua)
born at Lahaina, Maui, 11 April 1867
educated in England (Denstone College), and did not
return to Hawaii as the Americans had taken over.
His parents are shown as
Matthew and Leiaholia Makalua
but I believe that his natural father was an Englishman (!)
I also think that Leiaholia was related to
King Kalakaua I of Hawaii (King 1874-1891). I have
two handwritten letters of Kalakaua in Hawaiian, as
a typed English letter from him to my grandfather written in
1890 mentioning political troubles as reason for long
silence, also “Uncle Nowlein, Aunty Lucy and Maili”
(Maili may be their daughter).
Makalua never returned home, despite previous correspondence in the mid and late 1880s suggesting that to still be the intention. The Bayonet Cabinet in 1887 marked a sharp contour in the treatment, attitude and conditions of the Hawaiian Youths Abroad program and its scholars. As such, the previously heavily supported and warm treatment of most of the scholars turned. Makalua requested several times for added support while he finished up his studies and residency and even when he started a family while still studying for his final placement examinations. Staring in 1888, Makalua made several pleas to stay in England to finish his studies, despite urging from home to return. Although ultimately allowed to stay to finish his examinations, his other requests for additional allowance were largely denied, marking a sharp new treatment and confidence in his studies and his commitment to returning home and returning his investment.
Makalua’s pleas start in early 1888, such as the one in a letter to Armstrong dated April 6, 1888 he writes from Notting Hill:
I have the honour to address a few lines to you soliciting your influence on my behalf as there are rumors that I am to be recalled. I am happy to inform your Excellency that I have just passed the second Examination of the Royal Colleges of Physicians and surgeons, in Anatomy and Physiology. There is a third Examination to pass before I can take my Diploma.
Mr. Franklin Austin who is in London has advised me to write and ask your Excellency this favour. As I have no one else to help me to fight my battles in life I earnestly hope your Excellency will bear my request in mind and not to allow my recall to be an accomplished fact.
I have the honour to be your Excellency’s humble servant,
Later that year, Makalua writes another letter home pleading for a postponed return:
I am in receipt of a letter written by Your Excellency’s Secretary & dated October 22nd showing that you have been pleased to instruct Mr. Manly Hopkins H.M. Consul in London, to pay me, or to honour my drafts to the amount of L50-per Quarter, beginning on the 1st of this month. I must beg your Excellency to accept my most sincere thanks & gratitude for your kindness. It is not only for my allowance that I am so thankful, it is also for the fact that your Excellency has relieved me of every connection whatsoever with Mr. Armstrong. I feel this indeed to be a boon. Your Excellency must know how much he has done to throw obstacles in my way. How he has written injurious things about me. While he was my superior under the Government I could not retaliate in a way satisfactory to myself, so I was forced tolay my complaints directly before your Excellency. Since I know that you have judged impartially between us I can afford to forget all the injuries Mr. Armstrong has done me. Mr. Manley Hopkins has always been kind to me ever since I came to England, and in him I feel I have a true and kind friend. My term as Sir Joseph Lister’s surgical dresser came to an end at the end of October, & I had to take an appointment as a medical clerk to the Senior Physician (Dr. Beale). There were three vacancies and five men went in for them. The result of the examination was that I & two others passed & got the appointments.
I am sending your Excellency my 1st Certificate of Honour in Anatomy which I won last term.
I am your Excellency’s obdt servant.
P.S. I need hardly mention to your Excellency that my wife & I have every intention of returning home as soon as I get my diploma.
A year and a few months after the illegal overthrow, in June of 1894, The Pacific Commercial Advertiser runs a short story about the appropriation of $400 for the return, if ever needed, of Dr. Makalua from London. The article claims “this is a sheet waste of the public money. Here is a man who has been educated for years at the expense of the taxpayers. He shows no little sense of his obligations that he plans not to return at all, but to settle and practice his profession in England. Yet the Government in a fit of irresponsible generosity, proposes to allow him $400 to come home on. Three hundred would be ample; two hundred would be sufficient; one hundred and ten would buy a second class ticket from London to San Francisco. The Government perhaps feels that in order to entice the truant home it must dine him and wine him in the cabin of a fashionable Cunarder.” Also appropriated in that same year, 1894, was the “relief and return of Indigent Hawaiians $5,000.”
The Hawaiian Kingdom Legislature appropriated funds for Makalua’s return passage home, if he ever required it. In the Hawaii Holomua newspaper on June 1, 1894, there was a short article entitled “Doctor M. Makalua” where the allocation of $400 was discussed. According to the article, “it is not at all clear that the offer of this paltry pittance toward his expenses out will induce Doctor Makalua to quit a country and people where the shade of a man’s skin is no more social barrier than the color of his hair or eyes. The Advertiser is generous in suggesting a second-class passage for the ‘kanaka’ in preference to a steerage one, but how about his wife; daughter of a Colonel of the British Army and their children.” The article goes on to say that:
Doctor Makalua has attained high distinction in his profession and moves in the best society, and is possessed of means sufficient to come out and return. For the peace of mind of himself and wife we would advise him to remain in England; but memory dwells fondly over ones birthplace, and his countrymen want him among them; Mr. Damon, also, who at the risk of offending the crowd of medicos who constitute about a tenth of the foreign population is resolved to tempt Dr. Makalua to come. The Advertiser never raised a howl over the expenses—which ran into thousands—incurred in bringing Dr. Arning, Lutz and others out here, and in the case of these two gentlemen named. The causes which led to their departure were eminently discreditable to the Advertiser party, and injurious to the credit of the country.
In March 1905, The Pacific Commercial Advertiser runs an article titled “A Young Hawaiian Doctor Succeeds in England” that describes the story of Matthew Makalua:
It is not generally known that one of the young Hawaiians who were sent abroad by Premier Gibson of Hawaii to be educated, remained there and became successful, but such is the fact. The name of the youth was Matthew Makalua and he is today a surgeon of large practice in England.
A personal letter to Prof. Alexander, from a friend in the south of England contains the following:
‘There is a very interesting Hawaiian here, Manuia Makalua by name. He is a surgeon. Our doctor speaks highly of him. He was sent here in the old days, under the Gibson regime, to study and has married an English-woman whom I should imagine to be very well off. They have a pleasant home, beautifully furnished, and are a most devoted couple. Dr. Makalua was delighted to hear Hawaiian, of which he has forgotten a good deal. He bears an excellent character and is in every way a pleasing young fellow, good-looking and well-mannered. We have been very much pleased to meet him and Mrs. Makalua. I believe him to be the only Hawaiian who has practiced medicine successfully.’
Dr. Makalua was educated at St. Chad’s College, Denstone, England. Afterwards he took a complete medical course at King’s College, London.
On January 24, 1907, an article entitled “Doctor Makalua Gives Address” appears in the Pacific Commercial Advertiser where Makalua’s address in England (37 Pevensey Road, St. Leonards-on-Sea, England) is printed along with a short memo from Dr. Makalua: “Dear Sir: A stranger in Scotland has just sent me a cutting from your issue of November 16 last (I think) inquiring for my whereabouts. The above address will find me, I thank you for publishing the inquiry, and with best wishes for the New Year, believe me, yours truly, M. Makalua. To the Editor, Pacific Commercial Advertiser, Honolulu.”
On November 14, 1906, an article published in The Hawaiian Star acknowledges the death of Dr. Makalua’s mother at the age of 70 in Pauoa, Honolulu. It lists her as a widow to a Judge Makalua of Lahaina and leaving behind a son, Doctor Makalua, now in London. Judge Matthew Makalua died in 1902 in Lahaina with funeral services at Wainee Church. A 1902 newspaper article describes him as “a native of merit and worth, but has been out of public life for many years.”
 “Local & General News,” The Daily Bulletin, 5 September 1888, p. 3.
 “Local & General News,” The Daily Bulletin, 16 January 1889, p. 3.
 “Mr. Matthew Makalua,” The Pacific Commercial Advertiser, 26 August 1889, p. 3.
 “Wharf and Wave,” The Hawaiian Gazette, 28 November 1893, p. 8.
 “Twenty-seventh Day,” The Hawaiian Gazette, 15 July 1890, p. 2.
 “A Reply,” The Daily Bulletin, 21 July 1890, p. 2.
 “Local and General,” The Pacific Commercial Advertiser, 27 December 1890, p. 3.
 “Facts and Figures.” http://jabsom.hawaii.edu/about-us/facts-and-figures/
 “At Molokai: The Leper Settlement Visited by the Queen and Party,” The Hawaiian Gazette, 5 May 1891, p. 5.
 “Petitions,” The Daily Bulletin, 26 July 1892, p. 2.
 MS MC Kalākaua Box 1, 2. Bishop Museum Archives.
 MS MC Kalākaua Box 1, 2. Bishop Museum Archives.
 The Pacific Commercial Advertiser, 01 June 1894, p. 4.
 “By Authority Act 84,” The Hawaiian Gazette, 19 June 1894, p. 5.
 “Doctor M. Makalua,” Hawaii Holomua, 1 June 1894, p. 2.
 “A Young Hawaiian Doctor Succeeds in England,” The Pacific Commercial Advertiser, 25 March 1905, p. 7.
 “Doctor Makalua Gives Address,” The Pacific Commercial Advertiser, 24 January 1907, p. 2.
 “Died,” The Hawaiian Star, 14 November 1906, p. 6.
 “Death of Judge Makalua,” The Independent, 6 August 1902, p. 3.
Student Post Coming Soon
by Hoʻoleia Kaeo
Photo Credits: Anianikū Chong
Today, July 20, was a heavy day. We traveled very far to the outskirts of downtown London to one of many of the British Museum’s store houses. We learned today that the British Museum, one of the largest museums in the world, has 7 million items in its collection. But because they only display about 1% of the total items in its collection in its public museums, there are many store houses spread across the city to store the other 99% of its items that either just sit or await its turn in the circuit to be put on display or loaned to another museum. Of the 7 million British Museum items, 900 are categorized as originating from Hawaiʻi.
The particular “store” (as it is called) we visited today to meet Dr. Julie Adams (curator for the Oceania Collections in the Department of Africa, Oceania and the Americas for the British Museum) was located in Haggerston. After traveling by bus, then tube and then overground train, we got off in Haggerston feeling like we were lost. It was an on-the-cusp-of-gentrification little town, semi-industrial and random. Even the instructions to get there suggested that this store house was purposefully placed in an area as to not draw attention to the values contained within. A very discreet “B.M. Store” sign was the only evidence that we had stumbled on the right place.
Dr. Adams was very sweet and accommodating. After a quick check-in and distribution of visitor badges, we were escorted to a large ground-floor room where we were immediately rushed into a large warehouse-like room packed with dominating pieces from around the world. Toward the end of the room we all quickly saw what we were being sent to see: a kiʻi Kū brought out ahead of the other images and items in the room. It is difficult to describe the array of feelings and emotions we all had, but it prompted lots of conversation after. Our group asked for a room to ourselves to deliberate, reflect, and process–and that we did. After quite some time processing and taking moments to pause, we continued with the visit Dr. Adams prepared for us, including seeing an array of other items in their “possession,” such as a few ʻ ahu ʻula, mahiole, fans, a drum, and other items from Hawaiʻi. Our visit today made ultra visible our class discussion a few days ago about museums and colonial extraction, something that was apparent after our visit to the Louvre. Today, though, our discomfort about museums and their philosophy, approach and protocol was taken to another level.
We talked about how a trip to a museum is seen as such a benign thing to do when you visit a city. Now, we cannot help but think differently: about museums being so inherently violent, not benign but actively exploitive. So little is known about what it took to “acquire” these items, both the physical extraction, and the metaphorical one. Colonization and empire plays such a large role in the extraction of people’s physical items, but also our spirit. And to what end? For “everyday” people from around the world to play cultural tourist, transporting themselves to different parts of the world through their simple walking from one room to the next? And what about our “items”–our ancestors, our gods, the items of our aliʻi–sitting in boxes in storage, or on display for the consumption of others. How much longer will this be acceptable?
Photo Credits: Anianikū Chong
Today, July 19, we traveled to Windsor Castle for a special visit arranged with the Royal Archives staff. We arranged for this visit primarily to see the original letter from Kamehameha I to King George III in 1810. The Royal Archives is physically housed in one of the oldest parts of Windsor castle. The soaring tower, more than 200 feet in height, was renovated to house the special archives of the British Crown. The archive included the “Georgian” and “Victorian” collections, along with other Crown documents, differentiating it from the National Archives we visited yesterday in Kew Gardens. Our group was divided in to two groups, each spending an hour with Bill and Allison of the Royal Archives team, who beautifully displayed about a dozen documents pertaining to the Hawaiian Kingdom and the relationship that our aliʻi fostered with the British Crown.
Absolutely no photos were allowed in the archives, making the experience even more surreal and special to take in everything we could in the moment. It was an emotional experience, viewing one of the oldest remaining diplomatic letters from King Kamehameha I, which included his original signature (TAMAAHMAAH). The condition of all these rare items were impressive, evidence of the great care employed by the Royal Archives team. Among other documents on display were personal letters between Queen Victoria and Queen Emma. Also included were Queen Victoriaʻs personal journal entries about Queen Emma, who stayed at Windsor Castle on November 27, 1865. In addition to Queen Victoria’s journal were correspondence by the British Crown about Kalākaua. Also of great interest were the original seating charts and procession for the Queen’s Jubilee in 1887, commemorating 50 years of Queen Victoria’s reign. The British Queens guests of honor included Queen Kapiʻolani, Princess Liliʻuokalani and Colonel Curtis Iaukea. Both the seating charts and procession arrangements listed the names of the Hawaiian delegation. According to the Royal Archives staff, the Hawaiian representatives were arranged in very prominent and important seats, alongside other leaders of the world at the time. As makana, we gifted our archive hosts with ʻoli and hae Hawaiʻi pins from ʻIolani Palace, a fitting gift considering the archival teams many inquiries about the storied relations between our two countries, including our flags.
Excerpts from Kalakaua’s Letters: London July 12-24 1881
by Nikki Dutro, UG Student Sociology
Kalakaua visited England from July 6th through the 24th, spending a little more than two and a half weeks in London. Throughout his stay, he stayed at Claridges Hotel (https://www.claridges.co.uk). Although Kalakaua was not presented to the Queen immediately, throughout his letters he writes highly of her graciousness, saying:
Her Majesty the Queen was most kind to us, sending her carriage and offering us her box at the Covent Garden Opera, when she heard that we were going there… Though we were not officially presented at the Court of St James, still she extended to us privileges which we did not expect to receive and while Her Majesty’s carriage passed our carriage she noticed us by a most gracious bow and again to my two gentlemen who were with me on the carriage.
On Sunday, Kalakaua visited Westminster Abbey and joined the congregation in the services in the morning, which he described as “very beautiful and impressive.” Later in the day, they sailed up the River Thames with four other ladies and gentlemen of the English court in the afternoon and then had dinner at the Maiden Head with Lord Charles Beresford, Lady Claudi Hamilton and Lady Leister and Mrs. Paget. He stayed out quite late, only returning to Claridges Hotel at midnight.
On July 9th, King Kalakaua was presented to Her Majesty Queen Victoria at Windsor Castle by the Earl Granville, Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. Kalakaua writes of this meeting, “All in the room made a very low and gracious bow. I made a most profound one. And another. She came up to me and took my hand and then sat on a sofa asking me to sit down on a chair facing the sofa near her. All the gentlemen of the Court stood in perfect silence when the conversation took place between Her Majesty and myself.” Received extremely graciously, especially, as it would come to pass, in comparison to his French reception the next month, the two chatted pleasantly for a while together, talking of the details of Kalakaua’s voyage, the Duke of Edinburgh, complimenting Kalakaua’s English, and Queen Emma, amongst other topics that he could not remember as he was “quite electrified and monopolized the whole of the conversation that took place during the interview.” After this meeting, Kalakaua was taken to tour Windsor Castle.
After lunch, H.R.H. Prince Leopold and H.R.H. Prince Hesse of Darmstad took Kalakaua and his party on a tour around Windsor Castle, which he praised:
Oh! Sister I wish you were here to see the beauties of Windsor Castle and the old relics that the ancient and noble pile contained. It is really a grand and interesting.
When they left the castle, they visited St. Georges Chapel and a Memorial Chapel built by the Queen commemorating the death of the late Prince Consort. The next day, they visited the Crystal Palace, where an estimated 60,000 people were present, and toured the grounds. Kalakaua particularly picked out the panorama of the Siege of Paris as the most interesting scene of that afternoon. Kalakaua was invited by Lord and Lady Spencer to an evening party to meet the Prince and Princess of Wales at Kensington Museum, which he described as “more than an Evening party, it was a soiree… the party was of the most brilliant of the season and the elite of the English Aristocracy was [sic] dressed in the most elaborate style,” where he met the Prince & Princess of Wales, the Prince of Germany and the Princess Royal of England The Duke of Cambridge, Princess Mary of Cambridge with her husband Prince Teck. H.R.H. Princess Luise and Lords and Ladys in Waiting upon the Royal family. Describing how each of them took to pairs to greet the Princess Royal and the Princess of Wales passed through the assemblage, curtsying and bowing. The evening, he describes, was one of his proudest moments as he had the “honor and pleasure of walking under my arm the future Queen of England, who is very much beloved and respected by all classes.” Kalakaua was especially impressed by English nationalism that the people showed towards her, noting it as truly patriotic.
A postscript note adds other activities that Kalakaua and his party enjoyed, including a visit to the Royal Stables and the Queens Coach Rooms, the horses, he noted, “were magnificent”. A trip to the Albert and Victoria Hall to a concert, where Mademoiselle Patti performed opera to a crowd of 12,000 people. Attending the Arch-Bishop of Canterburys Garden party.
Kalakaua omits details regarding his trip, however, an interesting aside he makes July 24th, 1881 is in regards to a new uniform design. He details the change of the cross-belt to velvet with a gold taro leaf embroidered, with a sash, sword belt and side lacing of the pants in gold. Nothing the cheapness of the cost of the uniforms, Kalakaua additionally points out that the design is meant to differ from those uniforms of other countries to add a distinctly national feature. His consideration towards nation and people is evident even in these small details, where he notes that uniform as “rich, simple and cheap; within the limits that the two staffs can afford to pay.”
Overall, Kalakaua notes to his sister about his overall impressions of London:
exceedingly pleasure with everything I have seen in London. The people are so hospitable and kind and I only wished one of you were with me.
Photo Credits: Anianikū Chong
Today, July 18, is our first day in downtown London and we visited the British National Archives in London, England. The England air is crisp and cool in the morning and sun stays up until 9:10pm. We started our journey by bus and train to Kew early in the morning, and arrived to a quaint small town, walking through adorable small homes to get to an unexpected clearing for the large National Archives site.
Bringing the phrase “na keiki Hawaiʻi Imi Naʻauao” a new meaning, our group today had a fulfilling day at the National Archives at Kew. We prepared in advance by requesting documents ahead of time, all of which were waiting for us once we all registered and got ID cards to access the archives. With a document, folder or box in front of each of us, we each opened them up to see what piece of our rich history lay within. Just moments in, Kamuela Park discovered that his small, unassuming folder held one of the gems of the day: the original Anglo Franco Proclamation from November 28, 1843! This find generated energy, flurry and emotion that sustained us throughout the day. We also came across a wealth of other important finds, cementing the deep and long connections between the Hawaiian Kingdom and our aliʻi, and the United Kingdom and their own leaders and diplomats.
by Jarena Makana Pacarro, UG Student in Hawaiian Studies & MEd Student in Education Aloha ʻĀina (Fall 2018)
In 1883, the Hawaiian-language newspaper Ke Koo o Hawaiʻi, writes about three keiki Hawaiʻi Imi Naʻauao, three young men who travelled to London, England to study abroad. One of these young men was named Joseph A. Kamauoha, a former student of Punahou School during 1880 and 1882. Kamauoha, along with Matthew Makalua and Abraham Piʻianaia traveled to England under the care of Manley Hopkins, His Majesty King Kalākauaʻs Consul-General in England.
Joseph A. Kamauoha was selected by Kalākaua to expand his understanding of the world through education. Kamauoha attended the King’s College in London, which is known for its Arts, Humanities, Life Sciences and Medicine. Kingʻs College is located in the heart of London near the River Thames. Kamauoha attended Kingʻs College in 1882 when the school had just started admitting women into the school. He studied English, Latin, French and Math in his first year and by his second year, he was studying Chemistry, Trigonometry and Mechanics. He was quite studious and perhaps not very social. In his correspondences with Hawaiʻi, Manley Hopkins comments on Kamauoha in writing that, “Kamauoha is prudent, studious, diligent: give no ground for complaint in anyway, but is rather dull in conversation: indeed speaks but little.”
Kamauoha’s quiet and humble demeanor was further highlighted in an editorial found in The Globe, a London based newspaper, entitled, “A Modest Rescuer.” In the editorial Hopkins shares a story about a young Hawaiian man who rescues two men who fell off a plank while loading a ship. The Hawaiian man dragged the first man to the wharf and then proceeded to save the other man who fell after. After he saved the two men this Hawaiian man “immediately lost himself in the crowd” and “it was unknown to whom the two lives saved were indebted.” Hopkins then reveals that this Hawaiian man, who rescued these two men, was Joseph Kamauoha. Showing himself to be strong, intelligent and humble and not outshine others, Kamauoha’s actions reminds me of our kupunaʻs words, “Kuʻia ka hele a ka naʻaua haʻahaʻa. Hesitant walks the humble hearted. A humble person walks carefully so he will not hurt those around him.”
As Kamauoha continued his studies at Kingʻs College he adds photography to his class load which tells us of his artistic abilities. Hopkins indicates that he had to purchase all kinds of equipment for his coursework. I wonder what ever happened to all the photos that Kamauoha would have taken during his studies. Kamauoha was a very active young man and did not seem to squander His Majestyʻs financial support while studying in London, however, the weather was quite challenging for him. The cold winters soon challenged his physical body that was made for a more tropical climate. In an update letter to His Majesty, dated October, 1885, Hopkins shares that Joseph was “suffering somewhat in health. I wrote that he had had a little trouble with one hand requiring slight operation and that a chill had occasioned an inflammation in his eye. Since then, he has had an attack of pleurisy, no severe, but not yet entirely removed.” It seemed that after his arrival the London, winter started to take a toll on his body, so Hopkins moved Joseph to Torquay, England. Hopkins refers to this city as the “frying-pan of England” in his February 25, 1886 letter to His Majesty Kalakaua. Being further away from his friends, humble and quiet Kamauoha made friends in Torquay. Sadly, in a letter dated March 27, 1886, Hopkins, announces the death of Joseph A. Kamauoha the day before in Torquay. He says, “Very kind friends in the Boarding House at Torquay attended his bed-side, and he had every comfort. Thus we lose a fine, promising young man of high moral character.” I’m sure that this was a great loss to his two friends Makalua and Piʻianaia, yet it was an even greater loss for all of Hawaiʻi who considered him ka imi naʻauao.
Sorrowfully, Mr. Hopkins had to plan Joseph Kamauoha’s funeral services and and burial in Torquay. Interestingly, Mr. Hopkinsʻ letter advising His Majesty of his death closes with a postscript that indicates that the medical fees for Kamauoha during his failing health had a “great weight upon the nearly exhausted funds.” Today, Kamauoha’s remains are located in Torquay, England and although it is not on our itinerary this trip, I hope that the Hawaii Youths Abroad can visit in the near future. I wonder if someday he can come home to Hawaiʻi where he belongs.
The story of Kamauoha told side-by-side here with our National Archives visit reminds us that Hawaiian experiences are etched in this place. Even when, on the surface, everything seems so foreign here, there are so many things that are familiar. We are continually being surprised every day to discover more and more evidence of our country’s rich and proud history in archives, castles, and churches spread across this city and country.
Photo Credits: Anianikū Chong
 Pukui, M. K. ʻŌlelo Noʻeau: Hawaiian Proverbs and Sayings. 1983. Bishop Museum Press. P201
 13 Oct. 1885. Letter to His Majesty Kalakaua from Manley Hopkins. Hawaiian Consulate London.
 27th Mar. 1886. Letter to His Majesty Kalakaua from Manley Hopkins. Hawaiian Consulate London.
We traveled on the Eurostar train from Paris to London on July 16 to head to our new home for the next week at the University of Roehampton. There were quite a few in our group who had never been on a train before, so it was a unique and enjoyable experience overall. We are really getting the hang of moving around these cities and getting accustomed to the public transportation systems. Many of us remarked on how well done the public infrastructure was in both Paris and London, while also comparing it to some of these systems we have at home.
The journey was a smooth 2.5 hour trip, starting in one big city, through the northern French countryside, through the Channel Tunnel (about 30 miles), and dropping us at St Pancras station in London. The University of Roehampton is on the outskirts of London, about 45 minutes away.
The next day, July 17, we had class at the Library on campus, with a nice lunch break in Roehampton. It was a nice recovery day after a few non-stop days in Paris and traveling. We had great discussions in class about what we experienced over the last few weeks both leading up to the trip and while in Paris. Ilima Long, PhD student in Political Science, also did a presentation for us on some political foundations and historical comparisons amongst United Kingdom, France and the Hawaiian Kingdom, which provided us great context for our visits over the next few days.
Up next tomorrow….National Archives at Kew!
By Anianikū Chong, UG Student in Art & Hawaiian Studies
On the morning of July 16th we set out early to visit the Louvre Museum. The Louvre was originally built as a fortified enclosure in 1190 and used as a display of King Philippe Auguste authority as he was preparing to leave the country to go to war in the Crusades. It was later reconstructed in the 16th century to serve as a royal palace. Like many of the others buildings in Paris, in was a place that was constantly being built and rebuilt, expanding with each monarch covering a total area of 652,300 square feet today. In August of 1793 the National Assembly opened the Louvre as a museum with a collection of 537 paintings. Today, the Louvre Museum is recognized as the world’s largest museum that houses one of the most extensive art collections. Some of these collections include Egyptian antiques, ancient Greek and Roman sculptures and Arts of Africa, Asia, Oceania and Americas with work that spans from the sixth century B.C. to the 19th century A.D.
Aside from the fact that it is a major tourist attraction bringing in nearly 8.1 million people in 2017, it was also one of the places that both Alexander Liholiho (KIV) and Lot Kapuaiwa (KV) visited during their time in Paris in 1850. Prior to arriving at the Louvre, we read through Liholiho’s journal entries dating back to he and his brothers first visit on February 12, 1850 that describes their initial impressions. Liholiho writes, “The whole salon was about a quarter of mile long. Different paintings by the first artists in Europe, and some very well executed…When we had got to the further end of the Gallery, we could hardly see the door by which we entered.”
Similar to Liholihoʻs experience upon entering the Louvre, the mere size of the rooms and amount of art and paintings inside was overwhelming. Never could we have imagined a single place that could house so many pieces of art that came from all over the world. Among the many different pieces and collections of art that were at the Louvre, many of us were most anxious to see what pieces of art we would find in the Arts of Africa, Asia, Oceania and Americas Collection. We were a bit disappointed to see that there was just a single kiʻi on display at the Louvre from Hawaiʻi yet we were also relieved to know there weren’t much artifacts from home.
Interestingly enough, Liholiho notes during his visit in 1850 that, “There was nothing that I could see that was brought from home, except some Tapa and fish nets.” It begs the question as to, where those tapa and fish nets came from? How did the museum acquire those pieces? Where are they now? Walking through room by room, collection to collection, it was easy to be in awe of all of its beauty. But with each room and each hour that went by, a weight of emotions slowly came over some of us. It was the realization of the amount of time, energy, money and possibly force that was spent to extract these historical artifacts from different places and cultures to be brought here. One example of this instance was the Egyptian Antiquities collection and seeing boulder size engravings, statues and even an actual mummy. Liholiho notes his experience through this same collection as being “ filled with most ancient curiosities…such as mummies of men, women, children, dogs, cats, crocodiles, fishes, egyptian gods.” For us, seeing iwi out on display as such was a really uncomfortable feeling. It make us wonder what our aliʻi really thought about this same sort of display of iwi during their time.
After the Louvre visit, some of us stayed in Paris to watch the final match of the World Cup (France v. Croatia). It was an incredible experience to be with all of the Parisians watching and then celebrating in the streets. There were literally hundreds of thousands of people that filled the streets, prompting metro closures and our walking back approximately 6 miles to our university housing. Our group thought that the experience really exemplified a sense of lāhui, solidarity, and nationhood that was refreshing and special to witness in this program.
Photo Credits: Anianikū Chong
by Kamuela Park, UG Student, Hawaiian Studies & Political Science & Wyatt Souza, PhD Student, English
Today, marking our second day in Palisa, we ventured out to Versailles to visit Chateau de Versailles (Palace of Versailles), which like our own ʻIolani Palace, originally symbolized the center of a monarchy while simultaneously used as a statement of power and influence to the rest of the world. As we entered on to the grounds of the palace, the gold plated gates and trims of the building immediately boasted a sense of luxury and grandeur, as did the vast and beautiful gardens which we visited first. At first glance, the gardens and palace does seem to be immense in size, but one cannot really fathom its obscene magnitude until it is actually traveled through. Even when we took a driving tour around the grounds on a mini train, we only saw a fraction of its nearly two thousand acres.
The palace was incredible, but it was also ridiculous. To imagine the amount of time and resources that it took to make this building, which spans over sixteen and a half acres, and includes more than 700 rooms that are filled with gold plated trims, railings, crystal chandeliers, marble sculptures and pillars, and paintings that occupy the entire space of the walls and ceilings, could be considered excessive to say the least. In many ways, it is an obvious example of this European imperial power flexing its colonial might.
We added Versailles to the itinerary because in our pre-trip research and class preparations, we learned about the different Hawaiian ali‘i who visited in the 1800s, including Alexander Liholiho (KIV) and Lot Kapuāiwa (KV) accompanied by Dr. G.P. Judd in 1850. The two young princes were only 15 and 18 at the time, and each kept a journal of their entire European and American trip (KIV’s journal was published by Hawaiian Historical Society, and KV’s journal is at Bishop Museum Archives). Before we departed for Europe, we went to the Bishop Museum Archives and saw some of the original ali‘i European travel journals there and pictures they had taken while abroad.
In reflecting he and his brothers (Lot Kapuāiwa) time at Versailles, Alexander Liholiho, in his journal, details in great length what they both witnessed and experienced during their visit to the palace. Liholiho recalls their March 27, 1850 visit through primarily describing the immense amount of paintings housed in Versailles. Liholiho writes, “The paintings I think were the best I have seen. It would take volumes to trace our steps from the time we entered to the palace till we went out, but suffice it to say the whole of the palais was composed of just such rooms, all full of paintings.” Liholiho continues in his journal to recall specific paintings throughout the palace that stand out to him, specifically focusing on the paintings of members of Frances royal family.
As we read through Liholiho’s reflection of his time at Versailles, we began to think of our own experiences in the palace and how, perhaps, our experiences may have, to varying degrees, paralleled that of these two young aliʻi. During our time at Versailles, many of us commented on the sheer extravagance of the palace, also noting the almost overwhelmingly amount of paintings housed there. After we finished our tour, we were left in deep thought and with many questions about the palace itself and, furthermore, the experiences our aliʻi had at Versailles.
While Liholiho documents he and Lots’ 1850 visit to the palace, his journal does not contain their overall intentions at the palace nor the major takeaways they may have had. We wondered about how much historical context did these two aliʻi have prior to their visit? What, perhaps, did they hope to take away or accomplish from their visit? What did they think about being at the site of the French revolution? What did they plan to take home and share with Hawaiʻi? We also stopped to ask ourselves what our intentions at Versailles was and, most importantly, what do we plan to take away from this experience abroad and share with Hawaiʻi? What stories will we tell?
Photo Credits: Anianikū Chong
Between 1880 and 1892, 18 Hawaiians participated in the Hawaiian Youths Abroad program in six different countries around the world: Italy, Scotland, England, China, Japan, and the United States. The 17 young men and 1 young woman were selected by King Kalākaua to become future leaders of an independent and progressive nation, the Hawaiian Kingdom.
“But just as I have said, there is but one alternative left us for saving our country, and that to have Hawaiian youths educated abroad.” – Joseph Nawahī, April 1891
The Hawaiian Youths Abroad program was embedded in the Hawaiian Kingdom Foreign Affairs office, and was designed as both an educational and diplomatic program to train future leaders to serve in core government functions. The program’s very creation, design, and eventual demise, are demonstrative of the social and political conditions and concerns of the time. The quote above by Joseph Nawahī was from a Department of Health meeting at Kalaupapa in 1891 where Nawahī was addressing the leprosy crisis in Hawaiʻi and remarked on the remarkable progress of one of the Hawaiian Youths Abroad scholars, Matthew Makalua, studying medicine in England and earning many awards and prizes for his work. His studies and progress inspired the Hawaiian Kingdom Department of Health to begin conversations on starting a medical college in the Hawaiian Kingdom. This is just one of the many stories that beset the Hawaiian Kingdom to take drastic measures, including sending future leaders around the world for education and diplomacy to protect our country.
With a similar intent, the 2018 Hawaiian Youths Abroad program provides similar and appropriate points of examination by exploring both the Hawaiian Kingdom educational prowess of the the 19th century while critically examining the illegal attempts that have attempted to exterminate such progress. Native Hawaiian Student Services (NHSS) at the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa seeks to restore the Hawaiian Youths Abroad program in Summer 2018, after a 126-year hiatus. Mahalo to Hawaiʻinuiākea and Kamehameha Schools for significant contributions to help make this trip possible.
Summer 2018: Paris & London
This summer, a group of 17 are traveling to Paris and London between July 11 and 24 to retrace our aliʻi huakaʻi and diplomatic huakaʻi to these places in the 19th century. Our undergraduate students are each studying one of these aliʻi or Hawaiian diplomats, including Timoteo Haʻalilio in 1842-1844, Alexander Liholiho (KIV) and Lot Kapuaiwa (KV) in 1849 and 1850, Kalākaua in the 1870s, Bernice Pauahi (Bishop) in 1875-1876, the 3 Hawaiian Youths Abroad who studied in England, Matthew Makalua, Abraham Piʻianaiʻa, and Joseph Kamauoha in the 1880s, Queen Emma, and Princess Kaiʻulani for schooling in the 1890s. We are visiting different archives as well as different locations around the two cities that were visited by these aliʻi and diplomats.
The group includes 10 undergraduate students and 3 doctoral students from UH Mānoa as well as 4 faculty and staff from NHSS, Hawaiʻinuiākea and the College of Education.
Day #1 & 2: Travel & Paris
Today was a long and beautiful day. We started our travels on Wednesday, July 11 in the afternoon and it is now evening in Paris, France on Friday, July 13. We had a very long layover in Los Angeles, Amelika before continuing on our 11 hour flight from Los Angeles to Paris. We are now writing you from our Estudines Grande Arche student housing at the IESEG School of Management while we keep you all updated while eating amazing cheese, bread, salami and ice cream!
Soon after checking in, we rushed to our 2 pm tour to the summit of the Eiffel Tower. Eiffel was completed in 1889, so only a few of the Hawaiian aliʻi and diplomats who we are learning about witnessed the completed tower. However, today we learned that the Eiffel Tower was completed for the World Fair, that interestingly also featured work by another Hawaiian Youth Abroad, Henry Marchant, a student studying engraving in the United States.
Le Meurice & Haʻalilio
by Hinaikawaihiʻilei Keala, UG Student Hawaiian Studies & Pacific Island Studies
Exactly 175 years ago, on July 13, 1843, Timoteo Kamalehua Haʻalilio, the first Hawaiian diplomat, writes a letter from Le Meurice or also known as Hotel Meurice. I found this letter in the Hawaiʻi state archives and insisted that we had to go there today for its anniversary, so mahalo nui to my hui for being so patient. Hotel Meurice was a common place to stay for aliʻi and diplomats throughout the 1800s. After looking forward to
this moment for so long, it is unfortunate to say that our experience at Hotel Meurice didn’t go as expected. Upon walking into the lobby and admiring the beauty and extravagance of the decor, we were soon asked to leave after a minute of being in there. For the short moment we were inside, it definitely felt that we were not welcome there based on our appearance. I was immediately taken back and reminded of a similar experience that Haʻalilio endured in his travels to Connecticut. On the steamboat, Haʻalilio and Richards were seated for breakfast but because of the color of Haʻalilio’s skin he was asked by the secretary of the Captain to dine downstairs with the rest of the “colored people.” Haʻalilio ended up dining downstairs, with William Richards joining him as well. The New York Daily Tribune even writes about this account in which they comment on the actions of the men who wronged Haʻalilio. It is incredible that he was starting a conversation of prejudice in the 1840 and making America question their own social norms.
Haʻalilio along with William Richards had the mission to go abroad and secure recognition of the independence of the Hawaiian Kingdom from US, Great Britain, and France. With the immense pressure of the entire kingdom riding on them, there was no option for failure. It is a bitter-sweet story, and although they achieved success in their mission, Haʻalilio never got to see his one hānau again. On his way home, he passes away aboard the Montreal on December 3, 1844. This photo of him taken abroad is said to be the first photo of a Kanaka Hawaiʻi because photography in Hawaiʻi is introduced later in 1845. Haʻalilio is a true patriot who gave his life for the security of his people. As someone who at the time was one of the first Hawaiians to experience the world outside of Hawaiʻi, he stayed true and rooted to his home. In a letter written home describing Britain, Haʻalilio writes “…to forget my land of birth, it cannot be forgotten, there is love for the land, the chiefs, and the people. These countries I have seen are great, but I do not want to stay here, not at all, because the love and desire is not more than what I have for my birthplace.” As we travel in this far away land, he is an individual, a pōhaku whom I try to emulate as we represent our lāhui, ʻāina, and kūpuna.
Stay tuned…we will post more tomorrow! We are headed to Versailles…and it is Bastille Day!
Mahalo nui to our talented photographer Anianikū Chong!
Photo Credits: Anianikū Chong