300-Level Political Science: The Politics of Film (Writing Intensive)

POLS 343
This is an annotated writing-intensive course syllabus: the Mānoa Writing Program has added annotations in the right margin and bold green font in the syllabus to highlight relevant passages. We place this annotated syllabus and others on our website to help teachers understand different ways of incorporating writing-intensive hallmarks into the syllabus and course.

POLS 343:  Politics and Film (WI)
Fall 2004
Thursdays 1:30-4:00 PM – Seminar held in Kuykendall 205
Kathleen Kane –office in Kuykendall 107-108
Office hours: flexible and by appointment.
"The truth is not found in one dream, but in many."
Paolo Pier Pasolini
Il Fiore Delle Mille e Una Notte
Overview: In this seminar, I would like to extend to film the point Milan Kundera makes of the novel:  "the sole raison d'etre of a novel is to discover what only the novel can discover." As a claim of aesthetic endeavor, whether that endeavor be in figural or linguistic terms, it declares that whatever else art does, it had better well do what it alone can. In this seminar, we will be discussing what it is that film can claim as its raison d'etre, and viewing films that seem to understand themselves in such terms. At the heart of this seminar will be the assertion that when film lives up to this dictum, it does what good critical thinking does. That is, to take what is coded or concealed, uncovering that which is submerged, and attending to that which is surfaced. Such viewing reveals what is culturally surfaced, made natural, continuous, normalized; and beyond that, it creates or reveals discontinuities.
This seminar will not make the claim that all film works in such profound ways, though we will take notice of how it is that film "escapes" the authorship of the director, as well as the authorship of cultural narrative meanings, which are encoded within the film. Narrative will be understood both in terms of visual scripting as well as the written. Authorship will be understood both in terms of the filmmaker and of the film viewer, and will take account of the context in which the film and its meanings are conceived, produced and perceived. Intrinsic to the understanding of film in this seminar is the following: the notion that one doesn't sit across the darkened room from the film, but rather, one sits next to and in dialog with it; that film takes account of the viewer as constitutive of meaning; that resistance to power generally has as its referent the power against which it strives, but that this is not absolute; and finally, what it means to engage in "willful suspension of disbelief" is to find that the viewer becomes voyeur to oneself. In this regard, film is the means through which we can grasp that what is called reality and what is called fantasy are in collaboration, rather than opposition, with one another. Whatever else film is about, it is also always about film itself, or to put it another way, the means are the ends, which suggests that the political/critical moment in film is the aesthetic moment.

Syllabus indicates that the course section has been approved as writing intensive ("WI" or "W")

We will give critical thought to how social categories of difference (race, ethnicity, gender, sexuality, class) are constructed in social and in filmic terms, and will do that within the broad contexts of space and time. Viewing film, reading about how it functions socially, will be the vehicle for exploration of ideas and for high-level critical thought and exchange. There will be a number of thematic that will carry us through this course of study. We will move from written texts to filmic sources; from a focus on gender to race to class to ethnicity to sexuality; from local to global; from what we call the present to what we imagine to be the past. The thematic will be elliptical and recurring, pronounced and subtle. Rather than linear and time-bound, the seminar will privilege space as an organizing principle. This will ease our conceptual access to notions of location and identity in the politics of social categories, as it intersects with multiple social signifiers of meaning and practice in our lives. 
By the end of the term, you should be able to envision yourself within a social context, and to be able to think about what dynamic, intertwined social structures form, benefit and constrain you. And to begin to envision the kind of world you would want to live in, and what roles you might want to play there.  
Texts:  at UHM bookstore Textbook Counter
Monaco, James, How to Read a Film: Movies, Media, Multimedia, 3rd ed.
McLuhan, Marshall & Quentin Fiore, War and Peace in the Global Village
Reader: purchase at EMA, lower level Campus Center by Pizza Hut & Taco Bell
Viewing Schedule for in-class: depending on events, films viewed in class may vary from planned schedule; if you miss a seminar meeting, check to be sure that another film wasn’t substituted and be sure to see the film you missed in class by going to Wong A/V Center to view it.
Viewing Schedule for Wong A/V: Over each two-week thematic section, a cluster of films will be on reserve at Wong AV Center to view only during that period. For example, with the first class on Thursday, starting on the next day, Friday morning for two weeks ending on Thursday noon, you can go to Wong A/V, sit in the air-conditioned environment, and select one from the cluster of films for that period. In response to each film, you will write a one-page paper. Please see “Response Papers” regarding this assignment.
Weeks One & Two: Introduction to seminar, films and texts, and to theoretical orientations which enable textualizing, and contextualizing, film. Beginning discussions of what constitutes an image, or imagery, in relation to re-presentation, convention, form, content, medium, and "realism." To begin to speak of such terms as inciting aesthetic and critical meanings, and understandings. Discussions around how the critical and the aesthetic can be said to be both continuous and discontinuous with one another.
Aug 26: week one
*              Swimming to Cambodia, Jonathan Demme <85m>
Sept 2: week two
*              Waking Life, Richard Linklater <101m>
Weeks Three & Four: By now, it will begin to be clear that film is not only about image, about what gets seen - but that it is about what is already known and that it is not just "about" something, but "is" something. And that one of the "things it is," is ideology and notions of true/false, fact/fiction, real/fantasy. We will work with films that would most likely be defined and understood as ideological, as a means to unpack the complexities of what constitutes ideology. And how image can be said to be complicit with dominant ideologies, or subversive of them. Discussion of the states, or manifest intent of the image-maker and its significance (or lack of it).
The colonizing gaze. Colonization can be constructed as the victory of the strong over the weak, of big guns over passivity, of advanced technology over the primitive, of vast accumulated wealth over barter economies. As hegemonic realities, these are all significant and nevertheless insufficient in explaining the global phenomenon of colonization. It is the desire of an imaginary that constructs and enables these categories of knowledge, that necessitates the enactment of Western visions of "progress," that eroticizes, justifies and legitimizes violence and exploitation on a scale that, in important ways, is literally unimaginable. Can film look back? Stare at the act of colonization? Watch? Resist? 
Sept 9: weekthree
*              White Dawn, Philip Kaufman <110m>
Sept 16: week four
*             Half Life: a parable for the nuclear age, Direct Cinema <86m>
 Week Five &
Six: What is power? How can power be said to hold and to exercise aesthetic strategies? What is an aesthetic strategy and how does it “come to be”, and can it be said to be containable, precise, and assured? Here, films which attempt to “speak power” and to claim to “know” it. will provide our figural text.
Desire. Is it best said that it permeates film? That, as Spalding Gray says: The camera eroticizes what it frames? Is the act of seeing itself erotic, thereby creating “the voyeur,” and its pleasures? Trihn Minh-ha asks, “Who is listening?” in answer to the question of subjectivity, “Who is speaking?” We may well ask, in relation to film (and to image), “Who watches?”, and how is the watcher implicated in the image? Every film in this syllabus involves, is, desire. The films chosen to illustrate that here are chosen for the their capacity for “making a spectacle of themselves,” for the ways in which they move from form to substance to form to substance, and for declaring to the audience that they reside as much on the screen as they do in their seats.
Sept 23: week five
*              Black Rain, Shohei Imamura <123m>
Sept 30: week six
*          *            Richard III,Richard Loncraine <104m>
Weeks Seven & Eight: Where power is, there is resistance.  What is political and aesthetic resistance to power?  How does image constitute resistance to power?  How does it fail to?  What makes possible a "successful" form (literally!) of resistance?  What might it look like, how does it feel, how does it work?  Here, films that are defined by the resistance vision will inform us about the political and aesthetic act of resistance.
Oct 7: week seven
*             Looking for Richard, Al Pachino <112m>
Oct 14: week eight
Les Glaneurs et la glaneuse/The Gleaners and I, Agnes Varda <82m>
Weeks Nine & Ten: Can film "know" other worlds, can it re-present other ways of knowing; can we become knowers of other cosmologies through film. How can a medium of modernity claim to re-present vision, desire, dream and myth of the "primal" knowledges? Conversely, how can it be said to re-create the distinction between modernity and dreamtime? How the gaze of modernity constitutes and captures the primal as a category of knowledge. In film lies the kind of politics that understands "reality" and "fantasy" to be collaborative. Werner Herzog said: I am running out of fantasy. What kind of politics takes account of disillusion, of the dissolution of fantasy, and of the politics of "the rational"? During the next several weeks, we will address these kinds of questions, through films which are themselves highly reflexive on these themes.
Oct 21: week nine
*              Atanarjuat: Fast Runner, Zakamas Kanuk <161m)
Oct 28: week ten
*              Sankofa, Haile Gerima <125m>
Weeks Eleven & Twelve: So. If film is the story, who is the storyteller? Who weaves the truth; who weaves the beautifying lie? Where is the imaginary located? If to look is to colonize, is the locus of the imaginary also the locus of domination? What of the complicity between the one who looks from behind the camera and the one who looks towards the screen? If the Sheherazade of modernity is film, winding story after story in on itself and out again, entering this space and that, taking the viewer along with it - then . . . who tells the story? 
Nov 4: week eleven
*              King of Hearts, Phillipe de Broca <100m>
*              Les Enfants du Paradis/Children of Paradise, Marcel Carné <195m>
Nov 11: week twelve
*              Les Enfants du Paradis/Children of Paradise, Marcel Carné <195m>
Weeks Thirteen, Fourteen, Fifteen: Films that shift the gaze (be it the gaze of modernity, the male gaze, the Euro-centric gaze...), that doesn't sit across the darkened room from: rather, sits next to, in dialog with, and takes account of the viewer as constitutive of meaning. That can be said not to desire to claim a territory of morality, pedagogy, or divisiveness. Knowledge and desire are produced aesthetically and figurally such that the film is not "about" women, "about" childhood, "about" war. There are films that seem to defy the ideological referents that constitute "realism" and "reality". The speaking subject appears as itself (to the extent that it claims a self within the frame of the film and within the frame of the film as text), not a representative of that which is already known about women, childhood, war, and so forth. These films could be said to be performing a re-encoding, a re-construction, of knowledge - as if the step of de-construction is skipped, and the project of re-construction, aesthetically is taken.  It is the "subject in the making"; as Julia Kristeva identifies, the seeing of something that cannot be represented, and the going beyond that moment. This is the political moment - when the re-presentational (as "the gaze" in film" shifts to the pre-sensational). 
November 18: week thirteen
*              Arabian Nights: A Thousand Nights and a Night, Paolo Pier Pasolini <133m>
Nov 25:         Thanksgiving/no class held/no assignments
December 2: week fourteen
*              Jonah Who Will be 25 in the Year 2000, Alain Tanner <110m>
December 9: week fifteen/last day of class
*              Antonio's Line, Marlene Gorris <102m>
Evaluation of Students' Work: Teaching is an agent of empowerment. This dictum presupposes that students are the bearers of their own culture, or collective self-understanding. This seminar will be a reflection of that perspective, and as such, will involve an engagement of students in a self-reflective enterprise, one that takes place within a dialog that questions deeply held social and political assumptions. Dialog will clearly be an essential part of this seminar. Therefore, attendance and participation will be considered highly in the evaluation.  Evaluation of student work will rest on such materials as:


Due upon arrival to the seminar:

  • a 3-page essay -- see schedule for 6 dates,  plus 1 due on December 10;
  • a 1-page hand-written response to & reflection upon, each film viewed independently at Wong AV Center -- see schedule;
  • an “admission ticket” to each seminar in the form of a set of two written questions from the Monaco text, from Sept. 2-Nov. 18, see readings;
  • attendance; and, participation or the willingness to be -- to be:
  • reflective/receptive/respectful;
  • contributing verbally and in writing;
  • able to make breakthroughs in your thinking;
  • taking others' ideas seriously;
  • taking your own ideas seriously;
  • making the seminar meaningful to yourself;

Syllabus addresses Hallmark 4: the course requires students to do a substantial amount of writing--a minimum of 4000 words, or about 16 pages

Bringing oneself and one's voice into being is a political act, even in and perhaps most especially in a democratic mass-media culture. At the heart of critical thought is the theoretical grounding of the voice of the spect/actor as the act of bringing ourselves forth. At the heart of liberation of the creative spirit is a breaking of codes of silence, through the remembered and the imaginative. Both desires, both efforts, are at the heart of writing. Of speaking, and of knowing that one is heard and taken seriously. Of listening mindfully, and of seeing who it is that faces you.


All of these will be evoked by and through the act of writing, of reading one another's work, and treating one another's work respectfully. Attendance & Participation: In this seminar, the grade will be heavily weighted according to one's presence and participation. Since the seminar meets only once a week for 14 meetings (we have one scheduled Thursday holiday), it is essential that attendance be observed strictly. There is truly no way to replicate discussions that take place around a film. The opening and closing discussion and the opening and closing of each film are important parts of the seminar and cannot be replicated, so coming late and leaving early will be noted and will affect your grade negatively. Missing seminar will affect your grade:

  • One seminar missed, no penalty
  • Second missed seminar, final grade will drop 1/2
  • Third missed seminar, final grade will drop a full letter.

Dialog will clearly be an essential part of this seminar. Therefore, attendance and participation will be considered highly in the evaluation. Participation is a complex act. It has to do with how seriously one takes oneself and the questions that posed to yourself and others; how seriously one takes others in the seminar; and, the degree to which one works towards making this seminar one's own. Lack of respect for others, their thoughts and work, will not be tolerated and will negatively affect the evaluation of your participation.
What good participation is not--here are some examples of what this professor considers to be disrespectful to others in the seminar: dozing off during films showings; talking privately to another student during seminar discussions; arriving late or leaving early; reading or writing materials unrelated to this seminar during video/film showings & discussions; and, having not prepared for class--such as not having done reading, viewing, writing--and proceeding to introduce discussion that prevents seminar discussion from going forward and extend beyond the readings. Cell phones off during class time.
What it is--a demonstrated attentiveness to expressed thoughts of others, incorporating those thoughts into your essays (& crediting the speaker), contributing to the learning of others in the seminar by listening well to one another & sharing your verbal or written thoughts--these & other collaborative gestures on your part will affect your grade very positively. Good participation involves preparation for seminar and attentive, active & respectful listening & taking seriously other's comments. It will show itself in respect to the level of response-ability (that is, the ability to respond) that you demonstrate not only in seminar, but in the readings & writings. It is about your capacity for intellectual, creative, lively response, which can take many forms. Roughly speaking, the final grade will be figured as: 50% on writings and 50% on attendance & participation, which includes evidence of having engaged with the readings. Between reading, thinking, writing and dialog, each student will find her/his strengths. It is upon these strengths, and their employment toward developing less-articulated aspects of oneself that the grade will rest. Please see Writing Assignments below for a written assignment that will be calculated as part of the Participation Grade.
Writing Assignments

Syllabus addresses Hallmarks 1 & 2: promotes the learning of course materials and provides interaction between teacher and students while students do assigned writing

Weekly Essays: Each student will write a total of 6 weekly essays, plus one culminating essay due Friday, December 10 at 2pm--due according to the scheduled due dates and turned in at the start of the seminar meeting--which will combine interpretation/analysis/ integration/review of the films that we have watched in seminar and at Wong A-V Center, combined with themes, discussions, & readings for the seminar. These essays will be no less than 3 typewritten pages and will take into account the kind of themes and questions posed in the weekly schedule descriptions and in the discussions and readings. These should not to be descriptive about the content or storyline of a film. As such, each essay--from the French essai, to attempt--will be seen as: work-in-progress; as formulation and extension of individual thought and group exchange.
Note: You will not receive credit for pages or partial pages that reiterate “what happened” in the film, unless it is necessary to do so in order to advance your theme.
The professor will not be assigning paper topics; rather, credit will be given for constructing essays based on questions, interests, critiques and inspirations that are affecting students’ thoughts in relation to the seminar materials. Essays must go beyond a description of what happened and your reaction to what happened, and must reflect the ways that you have engaged yourself with the materials and have begun to think critically and to perform analysis of materials in order to ask yourself the hard questions. This writing activity will then reinforce an overall goal of the seminar, which is to be self-reflective about the world in which one lives and the world that is re/presented through the medium of film, and ultimately, the relation of the two. In this kind of writing space, students will be expected to do far more than just reiterate what they've heard, read or seen prior to coming to this seminar and even well-written essays that settle for that standard will be graded accordingly.

Syllabus addresses Hallmark 1: promotes the learning of course materials
The professor includes her expectations for the weekly essays (e.g., "go beyond a description") and informs students of the assignment's purpose.

What are the criteria of the essays? Each essay will be seen as a reflective work in progress, as a formulation and an extension of individual thought and group exchange. From time to time, some of these will be, with the permission of the student, duplicated, and distributed anonymously for seminar reading and discussion. No late essays can be accepted because of the nature of the writing as cumulative and based on process, rather than seeing each essay as product. The essays are also part of your preparation for our seminar discussions, so it is necessary to work on your essays as a part of your participation as well as your writing. This is another reason why no late essays are accepted.


Format of Essays: Because the professor will be wanting to write back to you on your essays, please use a computer to type them in 10 or 12 font, double-spaced, with wide enough margins for responses. Just type your name in the upper right corner, the date it will be turned in and number the pages. Please set the document to print at a reasonably dark setting. Don’t enclose these essays in report covers or make title pages, just staple the upper left-hand corner.
Grading for these essays use the following designations: +, √ , - (plus, check, minus), and will reflect the teacher's attention to how each student is doing in relation to themselves, rather than in competition with other students.
- (minus)   Turns in no writing or turns in writing that shows a lack of understanding of the films, readings, discussions, or is based entirely on reflections & experiences from outside seminar themes, texts, discussions. Doesn’t do grammar or spell-check or careful formatting of paper.
√/-            Turns in writing, shows some understanding of the films, readings, discussions, but offers descriptive response & a few scattered insights, responses, connections from materials of the seminar. Could have been written without having participated in the seminar, depends on personal experiences & discussions with others outside of seminar discussions. Doesn’t do grammar or spell-check or careful formatting of paper as outlined above.
√(check)    Turns in writing showing that thematics & connections between films, readings, discussions has been understood, & resists use of personal experiences & outside discussions to fill pages. Continues to some extent to depend on descriptive writing to complete required pages & offers incomplete development of understanding & incomplete & spotty integration of current materials. Depends on repeating main ideas from prior class without developing them further or without integrating  them into new areas. Does grammar & spell-check & is careful to format paper as outlined above.
√/+           Turns in writing that shows considerable understanding of the films, readings, & discussions, & does well-developed integration of materials that extends from the current materials back into previously read or viewed texts. Use of main discussion points from earlier class discussions but develops them further into so-far unexplored areas. Does grammar & spell-check & is careful to format paper as outlined above.
+ (plus)      Turns in fully-developed well-written essay with extensive integration of films, readings, discussions from entire seminar to date, while focusing on current themes & texts. Does grammar & spell-check & is careful to format paper as outlined above.
 Note:  Once again--late essays are not accepted. There is a direct relation between the essay and participation because the essays are also used to prepare for seminar discussion and are turned in at the start of the seminar each week.

  • One essay missed, final grade will drop 1/2;
  • Second missed essay, final grade will drop full letter.

Syllabus addresses Hallmark 2: provides interaction between teacher and students while students do assigned writing
Grading criteria are stated.

Response Papers to Films on Reserve: A short, 1-page written response to, or reflection upon, a film viewed independently at Wong A-V Center <see schedule> will be brought to the seminar as partial preparation for discussion. This short response is meant to be an immediate and spontaneous discussion with oneself about what has just been viewed, but should not reiterate the storyline or simply react tothese films. Credit will not be given for reiterating what happened in the film. As with the essays, these response papers should respond to the films and reflect on the meanings. These will be required, handed in, read and recorded, and will be subject to grading as follows:
+             Meaningful, compelling question/thought, worthy of discussion
√             Useful question/thought, possible to stimulate discussion
-              Nothing turned in, or question is simple, close-ended yes/no.

The response paper writing assignment is designed to promote student engagement and exploration with the course content (Hallmark #1). The assignment also prepares students for in-class discussion.

Admission Ticket: Students will be provided with “admission tickets” to be submitted upon entering each Thursday seminar meeting between September 2-November 18. These 5x7 cards are formatted for writing a set of two written questions based on the weekly reading in the Monaco text. Submission of the admission tickets each week is required and recorded, must take the form of compelling questions or thoughts that the book raises for you as you read it, they should seek open-ended narrative responses (rather than close-ended yes/no responses), and will be the basis for small group discussions on the technology and culture of the film industry. In order that small group discussions on these questions are useful and show respect to other students, these must be well-composed, reflective and meaningful questions. Because this is a writing assignment, these instructions appear under the topic of “written assignments.” However, since reading is about participation, the submission and grading of these questions will be figured into the participation grade. The admission tickets will be collected after small-group discussion and questions will be graded as + , √ , - .
Guidelines for an A for the seminar:

  • complete all work, on time;
  • attend all classes on time;
  • participate effectively in discussions based on Monaco and on all films & texts;
  • consistently and effectively integrate multiple readings into essays;
  • complete all required Wong A/V viewings & response papers on time & discuss what films means in light of seminar themes, materials and ideas;
  • avoid descriptions of the storylines, descriptions of “what happened” in story and focus on what films, readings, ideas and stories mean;
  • make extensive reference and connections in your thinking, discussion and in your written work to the texts, films & discussions in class;
  • take the ideas from class discussion further than they went in class discussion.

Final Words:
Break: No work will be assigned during the Thanksgiving holiday period.

The Admissions Ticket assignments help students come to class prepared to discuss the course content (Hallmark #1) and to focus their thinking before class begins.

As a writing-intensive seminar, each student is required to adequately complete all writing assignments to pass the seminar with a D grade or better. Not completing all writing assignments as defined above will cause a student to fail the seminar.
If a student finds for any reason that they are unable to achieve seminar requirements in any area of requirements, the professor will approve a withdrawal (W) from the seminar; no incomplete (I) grades will be assigned.
Extra Credit: Extra credit cannot be used to make up for required work that is not completed. It can be earned by students who have completed the required work for the seminar and would like to assure their grade or bump a borderline grade to a higher level. Depending on the length of the paper and depth of the analysis (a student would decide this before completing & turning in) these would have equivalent value to writing a three-page essay or a one-page response to the Wong A/V reserved films. This can be achieved either by:
1) watching a recommended film or special television program and writing an essay or response paper--notice given on seminar e-mail list or in seminar--for example, highly recommended for this purpose:
“Inside the Actor’s Studio,” on Bravo, 60 minutes. Check the weekly TV Weekly publications for the multiple times when this program is aired each week. For scheduled guest, visit Bravo’s web site at: http://www.bravotv.com/
 “The Daily Show,” with Jon Stewart, Comedy Central, Mondays through Thursdays at 8:00pm and repeating at 10:00pm, 30 minutes. http://www.comedycentral.com/tv_shows/thedailyshowwithjonstewart/
“P.O.V.” on KHET, Public Television, check listings for times/days, independent filmmakers on social themes. http://www.pbs.org/pov/
“Washington Week,” with Gwen Ifill KHET, Friday, 8:30pm, Public Television, http://www.pbs.org/weta/washingtonweek/gwen_why.html
“Now With Bill Moyers,” on KHET, Public Television, Fridays, 9:30pm, featuring interviews & discussions about social and political themes, 60 minutes. For specifically scheduled topics, visit web site at: http://www.pbshawaii.org/
2) attending films or productions offered at the following venues and writing a three-page essay or one-page response paper on the thematics of what was viewed, as it relates to this seminar:

Film: Varsity Twins; Movie Museum; Honolulu Academy of Arts/Doris Duke Theatre
Theatre: Kumu Kahua Theatre; Kennedy Theatre at UHM; Manoa Valley Theatre

3) attending campus or community events that are political in nature and related to themes of the seminar, and writing a three-page essay or one-page response piece.
Seminar/teacher/student Mid-semester & End-of-Semester Evals:
Mid-Semester Grade: mid-October, students will receive a mid-semester evaluation of their work-to-date, and of course, can discuss grades at any point during the seminar.
Students will have two opportunities to evaluate the seminar from your perspectives. There will be a standard end-of-semester written evaluation near the end of the seminar. Also, at a mid-point in the semester, a mid-semester student-centered evaluation will be conducted in the absence of the instructor by a consultant from the UH-Manoa Center for Teaching Excellence (CTE). Students will have the anonymity to speak about what has helped them learn, what has made learning difficult, and to make recommendations to the teacher for changes to the seminar for the second half of the semester. This information will be conveyed back to the teacher by a consultant from CTE.
When you turn in your last essay on Friday, December 10, by 2pm in the afternoon on the day after last day of seminar, your work for the semester is pau. The professor will read these essays and return to you via e-mail your final grade calculated.
Happy Holidays!

Syllabus addresses Hallmark 3: writing contributes significantly to students' course grades.
All WI courses in which
 writing assignments comprise less than 40% of the students' course grade must include this statement to ensure that students who pass the course have adequately completed the writing assignments (Hallmark #3).