300-Level Travel Industry Management: Sociocultural Issues in Tourism (Writing Intensive)

Course Syllabus

This is an annotated writing-intensive course syllabus: the Mānoa Writing Program has added annotations in the right margin and bold green font in the syllabus to highlight relevant passages. We place this annotated syllabus and others on our website to help teachers understand different ways of incorporating writing-intensive hallmarks into the syllabus and course.

TIM 321


SPRING 2004, WF 10:30 ‑11:45, George Hall 211

Dr. Juanita Liu, Professor of Tourism Management

Office: George 207

Office Hours: WF 12-1 p.m. or by appointment or email

A study of the philosophy, components, objectives, and implications of tourism, or travel for pleasure, can be approached from many different perspectives. Although the economic and marketing approaches usually predominate, other disciplines, such as sociology, anthropology, geography, psychology, and environmental science, political science, and even theology have addressed some of the complex issues of tourism. All of these elements come into play when considering the profound impact of tourism on both hosts and guests.

A survey of the voluminous literature on the social aspects of tourism will indicate two common approaches to the subject. One approach assumes that the benefits of tourism overwhelmingly outweigh the costs. In particular, tourism is seen as a beneficial force that will provide the economic means to modernize and sustain modern communities. Another approach that has become popularized assumes exactly the opposite - the detrimental is overemphasized over the beneficial. Taken to the extreme, tourism has been blamed for every societal ill.

Due to the very complex nature of the subject, and the lack of common agreement on fundamentals, there are no textbooks on the subject. About 45 articles have been selected from a wide variety of sources and disciplines, in order to give you a survey of how scholars have viewed the socio-cultural aspects of tourism. The goal is to look at complex questions in a balanced and multi‑faceted way. Extensive reading, continual dialogue and debate, and student research and investigation will help develop a critical approach.

This is an ethics designated course because ethical issues and dilemmas are an intrinsic part of travel industry management. For example, the following topics illustrate some of the moral considerations at stake:
  • societal threats of crime, prostitution, gambling, and terrorism;
  • third world tourism threats - commoditization, acculturation, dual economy
  • discrimination and prejudice fostered by stereotyping, ethnocentrism, xenophobia and social separation; gender and ethnic issues
  • ethical treatment of indigenous populations and artifacts;
  • simultaneous trends of terrorism versus peace.

Coverage of various topics related to these issues would give students some basics in the following:

  • exposure to various and conflicting points of view pertaining to the socio-cultural impacts of tourism;
  • the ability to assess disciplinary and societal biases and being able to evaluate them within the holistic context.
  • analysis of misconceptions about the impacts of tourism by use of social science theories and models;
  • synthesis of complex socio-cultural issues through social tourism planning approach.
Students are challenged to reevaluate the marketing dictum in light of the moral and societal consequences of management values and choices. Exercises requiring evaluation or application of theories and models of social change, motivational typologies and dichotomies, and resident priorities equip student to reasonably address concerns about negative impacts of tourism.
Student comments refer to this course as challenging them to broaden their thinking regarding the theme of whether or not tourism leads to cultural, ethnic or moral disintegration.

Students also learn of various social planning models or tools relevant to sustainable or responsible tourism practice, e.g., Management by Values, Low Impact Model, Dynamic Planning Model, Soft Tourism, Ecotourism, codes of ethics, etc. Students should be aware of these themes relating to the ethics of social tourism planning that run throughout the course. In particular, students are expected to address these in the final exam.

The midterm will consist of short answer, fill‑in‑the‑blank type questions, and short essay. Answers must be precise and require memorization of key terms, typologies, concepts, authors, and stages of models. A study guide will be given prior to the midterms to focus you in your studies. It is comprehensive, but not complete, meaning that it covers all of the material covered in the exam in general terms, but does not list every specific item that is asked in the exam. A lot of material is covered in the course and the study guide is given to help you to focus on key material. The best way to know what will be covered in the exam is to take excellent notes in class. Most of the exam will consist of material covered in class, so taking careful notes is important. Electronics, cell phones, hats, bathroom breaks, etc. are not allowed during exams.

Syllabus addresses Hallmark 1: writing assignments promote the learning of course content
Assignments will take on several formats. Several one-page writings will be assigned periodically on pertinent issues relating to the lectures. A case study, consisting of a minimum of 3 pages (single space, font 12, 1 inch margins) on the socio-cultural aspects of a tourist attraction or event will be the first major assignment. Drafts will be prepared and reviewed by classmates and instructor. The focus will be on applying concepts learned in the class and readings. Assignments are to be turned in at the beginning of the class on the due date, or earlier. No late assignments will be accepted, unless accompanied by a doctor’s note.

The aim of the course is to encourage discussion, criticism, analysis and above all, creative thought. In addition to individual readings and study. Each student will be assigned to a team that will present a debate the pros and cons of a relevant tourism issue. Each person is responsible for 10 pages of research on a the assigned topic, based primarily on journal articles. Copies of articles used in the paper must be turned in with the paper. Prior to the presentation, outlines and drafts of the paper should be prepared and discussed within the groups. Group participation will be evaluated by peers. Everyone is expected to participate in class discussions. The overall aim will be achieved through reading, rigorous research, lively discussion and tolerance toward other views.

Hallmarks 1 & 2 are addressed: different types of writing are used to promote the learning of course content; drafts allow students to get feedback on their writing during the writing process
A note on attendance and class style: the presumption is that attendance is required, not optional. Since much of the class consists of informal discussion and participation, you must be willing to make a commitment to attend class and prepare the readings in advance. Each person is responsible for keeping up with the assigned readings, which are expected to be referenced in your writings and projects. Please feel free to bring up any questions and comments on the readings anytime in class or with the instructor. You will be occasionally asked to write short essays in class on the readings. Students are expected to thoroughly learn the major concepts in the readings. Memorization of concepts and authors is expected. Students are also expected to be able to apply the concepts in the debates and in their writings. This is an important part of my criteria for grading. Finally, although class sessions are held in an informal style to promote participation and free discussion of ideas, standard format and rigor are expected in all writing assignments. Writing assistance is available on campus and through writing guides. Assignments (graded or ungraded), participation (group and individual), punctuality and class attendance will all have a bearing on your grade. Syllabus explains students' responsibilities regarding writing assignments and explains how writing will be used in the classroom. Professor informs students of where they can get additional out-of-class help with their writing.
Hence, students will be assessed on the basis of written, as well as verbal skills; descriptive, analytic and creative abilities; and participation. We will have a lot of fun with the material and debates, but this is definitely not a "cruise course." The material is not difficult, but you need to devote the time necessary to study and know the material in order to pass this course. Grading standards are: A=Excellent, B=Good, C=Average, D=Poor, F=Fail. The class is graded with a combination of standard and class curve, with the norm being in the average range.


Midterm 25

Final 25

Group Project and Research Paper 25

Assignments, Presentation, Attendance, Participation 25

Total 100


Jan. 10 (Wed.) ‑ First day of class

Jan 18 (Tues) - Last day to drop w/o getting a "w"

Jan. 19 (Wed) – Last day to add courses

Jan. 19-Mar.11 - Last day to drop with a “w” for extenuating circumstances only

Mar. 16 (Wed) ‑ Midterm Exam

Mar. 21 – 25 Spring Recess

Mar. 25 – Holiday: Good Friday and Kuhio Day

May 4 (Wed.) ‑ Last day of class, Final project paper due.

May 9 (Mon.) ‑ Final Examination 9:45‑11:45 a.m.

On day scheduled: Group presentation
Syllabus addresses Hallmark 3: writing assignments contribute significantly to students' course grades
This is a writing intensive course. The following writing assistance is available to students:
  • The Writing Workshop: Kuykendall Hall's 4th floor. Call for appointment for half-hour consultations with English tutors ‑ 956‑7619.
  • Learning Assistance Center: call for dates and times of writing workshops: 956‑6114. Drop by Queen Lili`oukalani Center for Student Services, Room 306.
  • Manoa Writing Program Webpage: links to sites on academic writing and grammar:
  • Hamilton and Sinclair Libraries: 956‑2532.
  • KOKUA Program – helps students with disability-related academic needs. Call 956-7511 or visit Queen Lili`oukalani Center for Student Services, Room 013.
Syllabus states that the course is writing intensive and informs students of writing assistance available on campus.
COURSE OUTLINE : (R refers to Readings)


1 Introduction: Key Issues in Tourism, the significance and uniqueness of the tourism product. (Reading: #1)

Assignment due Jan. 14 Fri: 1 page comment on newspaper item.

2 Tourist Typologies and Definitions and how they reflect bias (R: 2-3).

Assignment due Jan. 21 Fri: 1 page comment on your cultural background and how it has positively influenced the tourism product and market.

3 Travel Motivations in relation to typologies (R: 4).

Assignment due Jan. 28 Fri: 1 page comment on article in text (# 1-15).

4 Society, Values and Cultural Change‑‑evolution, involution, commoditization, acculturation, sincerity. (R: 9,10,12)

4 Tourist Settings of Social Space (R: 8, 11)

Assignment due Feb. 11 : Outline or draft of case study on tourist attraction.

6 Tourism as an Agent of Change‑‑Models of Social Change (R: =5,6,7)

7 Group work on debates. Tourism as an agent of change for Culture and Environment.

8 Tourist Arts as an Example of Acculturative Processes. (R: 13,14,15)

Assignment due Mar. 4 Fri.: minimum 3-page case study on tourist attraction.

9 Midterm review on Mar. 11 and Midterm Exam on Mar. 16, Wed.

10 Negative Social Aspects Associated with Tourism‑crime, family/social separation, sex tourism, terrorism; The Politics of Tourism‑‑third world tourism. (R: 16-23);Tourism in Hawaii (R: 36-40)


11 Tourism and the Environment, Ecotourism, Responsible tourism, alternative tourism. (R:29-35)

Assignment due: April 1, Fri: 1 page comment on article from text (#16 – 45).

12 Social Planning for Tourism‑‑management by values, resident attitudes, tourism

social policy. (R: 24-28) Tourism In Philosophy, Peace, Spirit (R: 41-45).

Assignment due: April 8 Fri: 1 page comment on an article relevant to your final paper that you have found yourself.

13-15 Presentations: Each group to turn in final outline on day of presentation

Group 1 Impact of Gambling on Tourism #22-23 (April 15)

Group 2 Sex Tourism #16-20 (April 20)

Group 3 Impact on Developing Countries #24-35 (April 22)

Group 4 Impact of Tourism on Hawaii/Hawaiians #36-40 (April 27)

Group 5 Tourism and Terrorism and Peace #21, 41-5 (April 29)

16 Last Day of Class – May 4 (Wed.) Review for Final Exam and Final Paper due.

FINAL EXAM: Monday, May 9 at 9:45 – 11:45 am
Course outline includes writing assignments and states when drafts are due.
The UH POLICY ON PLAGIARISM is as follows:

Academic Honesty

The integrity of a university depends upon academic honesty, which consists of independent learning and research. Academic dishonesty includes cheating and plagiarism. The following are examples of violations of the Student Conduct Code that may result in suspension or expulsion from the University.


Cheating includes, but is not limited to, giving unauthorized help during an examination, obtaining unauthorized information about an examination before it is administered, using inappropriate sources of information during an examination, altering the record of any grade, altering an answer after an examination has been submitted, falsifying any official University record, and misrepresenting the facts in order to obtain exemptions from course requirements.


Plagiarism includes, but is not limited to, submitting, to satisfy an academic requirement, any document that has been copied in whole or in part from another individual’s work without identifying that individual; neglecting to identify as a quotation a documented idea that has not been assimilated into the student’s language and style; paraphrasing a passage so closely that the reader is misled as to the source; submitting the same written or oral material in more than one course without obtaining authorization from the instructors involved; and “dry-labbing,” which includes obtaining and using experimental data from other students without the express consent of the instructor, utilizing experimental data and laboratory write-ups from other sections of the course, or from previous terms, and fabricating data to fit the expected results.

Disciplinary Action

The faculty member must notify the student of the alleged academic misconduct and discuss the incident in question. The faculty member may take academic action against the student as the faculty member deems appropriate. These actions may be appealed through the Academic Grievance Procedure, available in the Office of the Dean of Student Services. In instances in which the faculty member believes that additional action (i.e. disciplinary sanctions and a University record) should be established the case should be forwarded to the Dean of Student Services. Excerpted from UH Catalog Appendix

Services to students with disabilities: 
If you are a student with a physical and/or mental disability and you have disability concerns, you are warmly encouraged to contact the KOKUA program on the ground floor of the Queen Lilioukalani Center for Student Services. Syllabus/course description is also available in alternate format upon request for persons with print disabilities. KOKUA's phone number is 956-7511.
Syllabus states the policy on plagiarism.